THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101 Security for payment of benefits required; period security required to be in effect; definitions; policy of insurance or other method of providing security; filing proof of security; exclusion.

Sec. 3101.

  (1) Except as provided in sections 3107d and 3109a, the owner or registrant of a motor vehicle required to be registered in this state shall maintain security for payment of benefits under personal protection insurance and property protection insurance as required under this chapter, and residual liability insurance. Security is only required to be in effect during the period the motor vehicle is driven or moved on a highway.
  (2) Except as provided in section 3107d, all automobile insurance policies offered in this state must include benefits under personal protection insurance, and property protection insurance as provided in this chapter, and residual liability insurance. Notwithstanding any other provision in this act, an insurer that has issued an automobile insurance policy may only delete portions of the coverages under the policy and maintain the comprehensive coverage portion on a motor vehicle that is not driven or moved on a highway in accordance with section 3009(4).
  (3) As used in this chapter:
  (a) "Automobile insurance" means that term as defined in section 2102.
  (b) "Commercial quadricycle" means a vehicle to which all of the following apply:
  (i) The vehicle has fully operative pedals for propulsion entirely by human power.
  (ii) The vehicle has at least 4 wheels and is operated in a manner similar to a bicycle.
  (iii) The vehicle has at least 6 seats for passengers.
  (iv) The vehicle is designed to be occupied by a driver and powered either by passengers providing pedal power to the drive train of the vehicle or by a motor capable of propelling the vehicle in the absence of human power.
  (v) The vehicle is used for commercial purposes.
  (vi) The vehicle is operated by the owner of the vehicle or an employee of the owner of the vehicle.
  (c) "Electric bicycle" means that term as defined in section 13e of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.13e.
  (d) "Golf cart" means a vehicle designed for transportation while playing the game of golf.
  (e) "Highway" means highway or street as that term is defined in section 20 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.20.
  (f) "Moped" means that term as defined in section 32b of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.32b.
  (g) "Motorcycle" means a vehicle that has a saddle or seat for the use of the rider, is designed to travel on not more than 3 wheels in contact with the ground, and is equipped with a motor that exceeds 50 cubic centimeters piston displacement. For purposes of this subdivision, the wheels on any attachment to the vehicle are not considered as wheels in contact with the ground. Motorcycle does not include a moped or an ORV.
  (h) "Motorcycle accident" means a loss that involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motorcycle as a motorcycle, but does not involve the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle.
  (i) "Motor vehicle" means a vehicle, including a trailer, that is operated or designed for operation on a public highway by power other than muscular power and has more than 2 wheels. Motor vehicle does not include any of the following:
  (i) A motorcycle.
  (ii) A moped.
  (iii) A farm tractor or other implement of husbandry that is not subject to the registration requirements of the Michigan vehicle code under section 216 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.216.
  (iv) An ORV.
  (v) A golf cart.
  (vi) A power-driven mobility device.
  (vii) A commercial quadricycle.
  (viii) An electric bicycle.
  (j) "Motor vehicle accident" means a loss that involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle regardless of whether the accident also involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motorcycle as a motorcycle.
  (k) "ORV" means a motor-driven recreation vehicle designed for off-road use and capable of cross-country travel without benefit of road or trail, on or immediately over land, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain. ORV includes, but is not limited to, a multitrack or multiwheel drive vehicle, a motorcycle or related 2-wheel, 3-wheel, or 4-wheel vehicle, an amphibious machine, a ground effect air cushion vehicle, an ATV as defined in section 81101 of the natural resources and environmental protection act, 1994 PA 451, MCL 324.81101, or other means of transportation deriving motive power from a source other than muscle or wind. ORV does not include a vehicle described in this subdivision that is registered for use on a public highway and has the security required under subsection (1) or section 3103 in effect.
  (l) "Owner" means any of the following:
  (i) A person renting a motor vehicle or having the use of a motor vehicle, under a lease or otherwise, for a period that is greater than 30 days.
  (ii) A person renting a motorcycle or having the use of a motorcycle under a lease for a period that is greater than 30 days, or otherwise for a period that is greater than 30 consecutive days. A person who borrows a motorcycle for a period that is less than 30 consecutive days with the consent of the owner is not an owner under this subparagraph.
  (iii) A person that holds the legal title to a motor vehicle or motorcycle, other than a person engaged in the business of leasing motor vehicles or motorcycles that is the lessor of a motor vehicle or motorcycle under a lease that provides for the use of the motor vehicle or motorcycle by the lessee for a period that is greater than 30 days.
  (iv) A person that has the immediate right of possession of a motor vehicle or motorcycle under an installment sale contract.
  (m) "Power-driven mobility device" means a wheelchair or other mobility device powered by a battery, fuel, or other engine and designed to be used by an individual with a mobility disability for the purpose of locomotion.
  (n) "Registrant" does not include a person engaged in the business of leasing motor vehicles or motorcycles that is the lessor of a motor vehicle or motorcycle under a lease that provides for the use of the motor vehicle or motorcycle by the lessee for a period that is longer than 30 days.
  (4) Security required by subsection (1) may be provided under a policy issued by an authorized insurer that affords insurance for the payment of benefits described in subsection (1). A policy of insurance represented or sold as providing security is considered to provide insurance for the payment of the benefits.
  (5) Security required by subsection (1) may be provided by any other method approved by the secretary of state as affording security equivalent to that afforded by a policy of insurance, if proof of the security is filed and continuously maintained with the secretary of state throughout the period the motor vehicle is driven or moved on a highway. The person filing the security has all the obligations and rights of an insurer under this chapter. When the context permits, "insurer" as used in this chapter, includes a person that files the security as provided in this section.
  (6) An insurer that issues a policy that provides the security required under subsection (1) may exclude coverage under the policy as provided in section 3017.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 54, Imd. Eff. July 6, 1977 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 84, Imd. Eff. Apr. 19, 1984 ;-- Am. 1987, Act 168, Imd. Eff. Nov. 9, 1987 ;-- Am. 1988, Act 126, Imd. Eff. May 23, 1988 ;-- Am. 2008, Act 241, Imd. Eff. July 17, 2008 ;-- Am. 2014, Act 492, Imd. Eff. Jan. 13, 2015 ;-- Am. 2016, Act 346, Eff. Mar. 21, 2017 ;-- Am. 2017, Act 140, Imd. Eff. Oct. 30, 2017 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Constitutionality: Subsection (1) of this section is unconstitutional but subsection (2) does not violate the due process and equal protection clauses. Shavers v Attorney General, 402 Mich 554; 267 NW2d 72 (1978).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.Enacting section 1 of Act 492 of 2014 provides:"Enacting section 1. Section 3101(2)(h)(vi) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3101, as added by this amendatory act, shall be applied retroactively."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101a Providing certificate of insurance to secretary of state and policy information to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility; vehicle identification number as proof of vehicle insurance; confidentiality of policy information; prohibited acts; misdemeanor; penalty; report; "automobile insurance" and "private passenger nonfleet automobile" defined.

Sec. 3101a.

  (1) An insurer, in conjunction with the issuance of an automobile insurance policy, shall provide to the insured 1 certificate of insurance for each insured vehicle and for private passenger nonfleet automobiles listed on the policy shall supply to the secretary of state the automobile insurer's name, the name of the named insured, the named insured's address, the vehicle identification number for each vehicle listed on the policy, and the policy number. The insurer shall transmit the information required under this subsection in a format as required by the secretary of state. The secretary of state shall not require the information to be transmitted more frequently than every 14 days.
  (2) The secretary of state shall provide policy information received under subsection (1) to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility as required for the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility to comply with this act. Information received by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility under this subsection is confidential and is not subject to the freedom of information act, 1976 PA 442, MCL 15.231 to 15.246. The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall only use the information for purposes of administering the assigned claims plan under this chapter and shall not disclose the information to any person unless it is for the purpose of administering the assigned claims plan or in compliance with an order by a court of competent jurisdiction in connection with a fraud investigation or prosecution.
  (3) The secretary of state shall provide policy information received under subsection (1) to the department of health and human services as required for the department of health and human services to comply with 2006 PA 593, MCL 550.281 to 550.289.
  (4) The secretary of state shall accept as proof of vehicle insurance a transmission of the insured vehicle's vehicle identification number. Policy information submitted by an insurer and received by the secretary of state under this section is confidential, is not subject to the freedom of information act, 1976 PA 442, MCL 15.231 to 15.246, and must not be disclosed to any person except the department of health and human services for purposes of 2006 PA 593, MCL 550.281 to 550.289, or pursuant to an order by a court of competent jurisdiction in connection with a claim or fraud investigation or prosecution. The transmission to the secretary of state of a vehicle identification number is proof of insurance to the secretary of state for motor vehicle registration purposes only and is not evidence that a policy of insurance actually exists between an insurer and an individual.
  (5) A person who supplies false information to the secretary of state under this section or who issues or uses an altered, fraudulent, or counterfeit certificate of insurance is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $1,000.00, or both.
  (6) The department of health and human services shall report to the senate and house of representatives appropriations committees and standing committees concerning insurance issues on the number of claims and total dollar amount recovered from automobile insurers under 2006 PA 593, MCL 550.281 to 550.289. The reports required by this subsection must be given to the appropriations committees and standing committees concerning insurance issues by December 30 of each year and must cover the preceding 12-month period.
  (7) As used in this section:
  (a) "Automobile insurance" means that term as defined in section 3303.
  (b) "Private passenger nonfleet automobile" means that term as defined in section 3303.


History: Add. 1980, Act 461, Eff. Apr. 1, 1981 ;-- Am. 1995, Act 288, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1996 ;-- Am. 1996, Act 456, Imd. Eff. Dec. 23, 1996 ;-- Am. 2011, Act 91, Imd. Eff. July 15, 2011 ;-- Am. 2014, Act 419, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 2014 ;-- Am. 2018, Act 510, Imd. Eff. Dec. 28, 2018 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101b Repealed. 2011, Act 91, Imd. Eff. July 15, 2011.


Compiler's Notes: The repealed section pertained to providing proof of vehicle insurance through insurance verification board.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101c Standard certified statement.

Sec. 3101c.

   The commissioner shall prescribe a standard certified statement that automobile insurers shall use to show pursuant to section 227a(1)(a) of the Michigan vehicle code, Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949, being section 257.227a of the Michigan Compiled Laws, that a vehicle is insured under a 6-month prepaid, noncancelable policy.


History: Add. 1995, Act 288, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1996
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3102 Nonresident owner or registrant of motor vehicle or motorcycle to maintain security for payment of benefits; operation of motor vehicle or motorcycle by owner, registrant, or other person without security; penalty; failure to produce evidence of security; rebuttable presumption.

Sec. 3102.

  (1) A nonresident owner or registrant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle not registered in this state shall not operate or permit the motor vehicle or motorcycle to be operated in this state for an aggregate of more than 30 days in any calendar year unless he or she continuously maintains security for the payment of benefits pursuant to this chapter.
  (2) An owner or registrant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle with respect to which security is required, who operates the motor vehicle or motorcycle or permits it to be operated upon a public highway in this state, without having in full force and effect security complying with this section or section 3101 or 3103 is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who operates a motor vehicle or motorcycle upon a public highway in this state with the knowledge that the owner or registrant does not have security in full force and effect is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person convicted of a misdemeanor under this section shall be fined not less than $200.00 nor more than $500.00, imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both.
  (3) The failure of a person to produce evidence that a motor vehicle or motorcycle has in full force and effect security complying with this section or section 3101 or 3103 on the date of the issuance of the citation, creates a rebuttable presumption in a prosecution under subsection (2) that the motor vehicle or motorcycle did not have in full force and effect security complying with this section or section 3101 or 3103 on the date of the issuance of the citation.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976 ;-- Am. 1979, Act 145, Imd. Eff. Nov. 13, 1979 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 446, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1987, Act 187, Eff. Mar. 30, 1988 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 79, Imd. Eff. May 24, 1990
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3103 Owner or registrant of motorcycle; security required; offering security for payment of first-party medical benefits; rates, deductibles, and provisions.

Sec. 3103.

  (1) An owner or registrant of a motorcycle shall provide security against loss resulting from liability imposed by law for property damage, bodily injury, or death suffered by a person arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of that motorcycle. The security shall conform with the requirements of section 3009(1).
  (2) Each insurer transacting insurance in this state which affords coverage for a motorcycle as described in subsection (1) also shall offer, to an owner or registrant of a motorcycle, security for the payment of first-party medical benefits only, in increments of $5,000.00, payable in the event the owner or registrant is involved in a motorcycle accident. An insurer providing first-party medical benefits may offer, at appropriate premium rates, deductibles, provisions for the coordination of these benefits, and provisions for the subtraction of other benefits provided or required to be provided under the laws of any state or the federal government, subject to the prior approval of the commissioner. These deductibles and provisions shall apply only to benefits payable to the person named in the policy, the spouse of the insured, and any relative of either domiciled in the same household.


History: Add. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 54, Imd. Eff. July 6, 1977 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1986, Act 173, Imd. Eff. July 7, 1986
Constitutionality: The legislative scheme which allows motorcyclists to receive no-fault benefits for personal injuries without requiring them to maintain no-fault security does not deny automobile drivers equal protection or due process of law. Underhill v Safeco Insurance Company, 407 Mich 175; 284 NW2d 463 (1979).
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3104 Catastrophic claims association; board of directors; plan of operation; annual report; actuarial examination; refund; hearing; annual consumer statement; liability of association; definitions.

Sec. 3104.

  (1) The catastrophic claims association is created as an unincorporated, nonprofit association. Each insurer engaged in writing insurance coverages that provide the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, as a condition of its authority to transact insurance in this state, shall be a member of the association and is bound by the plan of operation of the association. An insurer engaged in writing insurance coverages that provide the security required by section 3103(1) in this state, as a condition of its authority to transact insurance in this state, is considered to be a member of the association, but only for purposes of premiums under subsection (7)(d). Except as expressly provided in this section, the association is not subject to any laws of this state with respect to insurers, but in all other respects the association is subject to the laws of this state to the extent that the association would be if it were an insurer organized and subsisting under chapter 50.
  (2) For all motor vehicle accident policies issued or renewed before July 2, 2020 and for a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed after July 1, 2020 to which section 3107c(1)(d) applies, the association shall provide and each member shall accept indemnification for 100% of the amount of ultimate loss sustained under personal protection insurance coverages in excess of the following amounts in each loss occurrence:
  (a) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed before July 1, 2002, $250,000.00.
  (b) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003, $300,000.00.
  (c) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004, $325,000.00.
  (d) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005, $350,000.00.
  (e) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, $375,000.00.
  (f) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007, $400,000.00.
  (g) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008, $420,000.00.
  (h) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009, $440,000.00.
  (i) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010, $460,000.00.
  (j) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011, $480,000.00.
  (k) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013, $500,000.00.
  (l) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2015, $530,000.00.
  (m) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2017, $545,000.00.
  (n) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2019, $555,000.00.
  (o) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2021, $580,000.00. Beginning July 1, 2021, this $580,000.00 amount must be increased biennially on July 1 of each odd-numbered year, for policies issued or renewed before July 1 of the following odd-numbered year, by the lesser of 6% or the Consumer Price Index, and rounded to the nearest $5,000.00. The association shall calculate this biennial adjustment by January 1 of the year of its July 1 effective date.
  (3) An insurer may withdraw from the association only on ceasing to write insurance that provides the security required by section 3101(1) in this state.
  (4) An insurer whose membership in the association has been terminated by withdrawal continues to be bound by the plan of operation, and on withdrawal, all unpaid premiums that have been charged to the withdrawing member are payable as of the effective date of the withdrawal.
  (5) An unsatisfied net liability to the association of an insolvent member must be assumed by and apportioned among the remaining members of the association as provided in the plan of operation. The association has all rights allowed by law on behalf of the remaining members against the estate or funds of the insolvent member for money due the association.
  (6) If a member has been merged or consolidated into another insurer or another insurer has reinsured a member's entire business that provides the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, the member and successors in interest of the member remain liable for the member's obligations.
  (7) The association shall do all of the following on behalf of the members of the association:
  (a) Assume 100% of all liability as provided in subsection (2).
  (b) Establish procedures by which members must promptly report to the association each claim that, on the basis of the injuries or damages sustained, may reasonably be anticipated to involve the association if the member is ultimately held legally liable for the injuries or damages. Solely for the purpose of reporting claims, the member shall in all instances consider itself legally liable for the injuries or damages. The member shall also advise the association of subsequent developments likely to materially affect the interest of the association in the claim.
  (c) Maintain relevant loss and expense data relating to all liabilities of the association and require each member to furnish statistics, in connection with liabilities of the association, at the times and in the form and detail as required by the plan of operation.
  (d) In a manner provided for in the plan of operation, calculate and charge to members of the association a total premium sufficient to cover the expected losses and expenses of the association that the association will likely incur during the period for which the premium is applicable. The total premium must include an amount to cover incurred but not reported losses for the period and must be adjusted for any excess or deficient premiums from previous periods. Excesses or deficiencies from previous periods must either be fully adjusted in a single period or be adjusted over several periods in a manner provided for in the plan of operation. Each member must be charged an amount equal to that member's total written car years of insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) or 3103(1), or both, written in this state during the period to which the premium applies, with the total written car years of insurance multiplied by the applicable average premium per car. The average premium per car is the total premium, as adjusted for any excesses or deficiencies, divided by the total written car years of insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) or 3103(1), or both, written in this state of all members during the period to which the premium applies, excluding cars insured under a policy with a coverage limit under section 3107c(1)(a), (b), or (c), cars as to which an election to not maintain personal protection insurance benefits has been made under section 3107d, or as to which an exclusion under section 3109a(2) applies, except for any portion of total premium that is an adjustment for a deficiency in a previous period. A member may not be charged a premium for a car insured under a policy with a coverage limit under section 3107c(1)(a), (b), or (c), as to which an election to not maintain personal protection insurance benefits has been made under section 3107d, or as to which an exclusion under section 3109a(2) applies, other than for the portion of the total premium attributable to an adjustment for a deficiency in a previous period. A member must be charged a premium for a historic vehicle that is insured with the member of 20% of the premium charged for a car insured with the member.
  (e) Require and accept the payment of premiums from members of the association as provided for in the plan of operation. The association shall do either of the following:
  (i) Require payment of the premium in full within 45 days after the premium charge.
  (ii) Require payment of the premiums to be made periodically to cover the actual cash obligations of the association.
  (f) Receive and distribute all money required by the operation of the association.
  (g) Establish procedures for reviewing claims procedures and practices of members of the association. If the claims procedures or practices of a member are considered inadequate to properly service the liabilities of the association, the association may undertake or may contract with another person, including another member, to adjust or assist in the adjustment of claims for the member on claims that create a potential liability to the association and may charge the cost of the adjustment to the member.
  (h) Provide any records necessary or requested by the director for the actuarial examination under subsection (21).
  (i) Subject to subsection (23), obey an order of the director for a refund under subsection (22).
  (8) In addition to other powers granted to it by this section, the association may do all of the following:
  (a) Sue and be sued in the name of the association. A judgment against the association does not create any direct liability against the individual members of the association. The association may provide for the indemnification of its members, members of the board of directors of the association, and officers, employees, and other persons lawfully acting on behalf of the association.
  (b) Reinsure all or any portion of its potential liability with reinsurers licensed to transact insurance in this state or approved by the director.
  (c) Provide for appropriate housing, equipment, and personnel as necessary to assure the efficient operation of the association.
  (d) Pursuant to the plan of operation, adopt reasonable rules for the administration of the association, enforce those rules, and delegate authority, as the board considers necessary to assure the proper administration and operation of the association consistent with the plan of operation.
  (e) Contract for goods and services, including independent claims management, actuarial, investment, and legal services, from others in or outside of this state to assure the efficient operation of the association.
  (f) Hear and determine complaints of a company or other interested party concerning the operation of the association.
  (g) Perform other acts not specifically enumerated in this section that are necessary or proper to accomplish the purposes of the association and that are not inconsistent with this section or the plan of operation.
  (9) A board of directors is created and shall operate the association consistent with the plan of operation and this section.
  (10) The plan of operation must provide for all of the following:
  (a) The establishment of necessary facilities.
  (b) The management and operation of the association.
  (c) Procedures to be utilized in charging premiums, including adjustments from excess or deficient premiums from prior periods. The plan must require that any deficiency from a prior period be amortized over not fewer than 15 years.
  (d) Procedures for a refund to members of the association, for distribution to insureds as provided in subsection (24), as ordered by the director under subsection (22). The procedures must provide for a distribution of a refund attributable to a historic vehicle equal to 20% of the refund for a car that is not a historic vehicle.
  (e) Procedures governing the actual payment of premiums to the association.
  (f) Reimbursement of each member of the board by the association for actual and necessary expenses incurred on association business.
  (g) The investment policy of the association.
  (h) Any other matters required by or necessary to effectively implement this section.
  (11) The board must include members that would contribute a total of not less than 40% of the total premium calculated under subsection (7)(d). Each board member is entitled to 1 vote. The initial term of office of a board member is 2 years.
  (12) As part of the plan of operation, the board shall adopt rules providing for the composition of the board and the terms of board members, consistent with the membership composition requirements in subsections (11) and (13). Terms of the board members must be staggered so that the terms of all the board members do not expire at the same time and so that a board member does not serve a term of more than 4 years.
  (13) The board must consist of 5 board members and the director, who shall serve as an ex officio member of the board without vote.
  (14) The director shall appoint the board members. A board member shall serve until his or her successor is selected and qualified. The board shall elect the chairperson of the board. The director shall fill any vacancy on the board as provided in the plan of operation.
  (15) The board shall meet as often as the chairperson, the director, or the plan of operation requires, or at the request of any 3 board members. The chairperson may vote on all issues. Four board members constitute a quorum.
  (16) The board shall furnish to each member of the association an annual report of the operations of the association in a form and detail as determined by the board.
  (17) Any amendments to the plan of operation are subject to majority approval by the board, ratification by a majority of the membership of the association having a vote, with voting rights being apportioned according to the premiums charged in subsection (7)(d), and approval by the director.
  (18) An insurer authorized to write insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, as provided in this section, is bound by and shall formally subscribe to and participate in the plan of operation as a condition of maintaining its authority to transact insurance in this state.
  (19) The association is subject to all the reporting, loss reserve, and investment requirements of the director to the same extent as is a member of the association.
  (20) Premiums charged members by the association must be recognized in the rate-making procedures for insurance rates in the same manner that expenses and premium taxes are recognized. If a member of the association passes on any portion of the premium payable under this section to an insured, the amount passed on must equal the portion of the premium payable by the member under this section attributable to the car or historic vehicle insured, including any adjustments for excesses or deficiencies from a previous period.
  (21) The director or an authorized representative of the director may visit the association at any time and examine any and all of the association's affairs. Beginning July 1, 2022, and every third year after 2022, the director shall engage 1 or more independent actuaries to examine the affairs and records of the association for the previous 3 years. The actuarial examination must be conducted using sound actuarial principles consistent with the applicable statements of principles and the code of professional conduct adopted by the Casualty Actuarial Society. By September 1, 2022 and by September 1 of every third year after 2022, the director shall provide a report to the legislature on the results of the audit conducted under this subsection.
  (22) If the actuarial examination under subsection (21) shows that the assets of the association exceed 120% of its liabilities, including incurred but not reported liabilities, and if the refund will not threaten the association's ongoing ability to provide reimbursements for personal protection insurance benefits based on sound actuarial principles consistent with the applicable statements of principles and the code of professional conduct adopted by the Casualty Actuarial Society, the director shall order the association to refund an amount equal to the difference between the total excess and 120% of the liabilities of the association, including incurred but not reported liabilities, under subsection (10)(d) and order the members of the association to distribute the refunds under subsection (24).
  (23) Within 30 days after receiving an order from the director under subsection (22), the association may request a hearing to review the order by filing a written request with the director. The department shall conduct the review as a contested case under the administrative procedures act of 1969, 1969 PA 306, MCL 24.201 to 24.328.
  (24) A member of the association shall distribute any refund it receives under subsection (10)(d) to the persons that it insures under policies that provide the security required under section 3101(1) or 3103(1), or both, and that are subject to a premium under this section on a uniform basis per car and historic vehicle in a manner and on the date or dates provided by the director in accordance with an order issued by the director. A refund attributable to a historic vehicle must be equal to 20% of the refund for a car that is not a historic vehicle.
  (25) By September 1 of each year, the association shall prepare, submit to the committees of the senate and house of representatives with jurisdiction over insurance matters, and post on the association website an annual consumer statement, written in a manner intended for the general public. The statement must include all of the following:
  (a) The number of claims opened during the preceding 12 months, the amount expended on the claims, and the future anticipated costs of the claims.
  (b) For each of the preceding 10 years, the total number of open claims, the amount expended on the claims, and the anticipated future costs of the claims.
  (c) For each of the preceding 10 years, the total number of claims closed and the amount expended on the claims.
  (d) For each of the preceding 10 years, the ratio of claims opened to claims closed.
  (e) For each of the preceding 10 years, the average length of open claims.
  (f) A statement of the current financial condition of the association and the reasons for any deficit or surplus in collected assessments compared to losses.
  (g) A statement of the assumptions, methodology, and data used to make revenue projections. As used in this subdivision, "revenue" means return on investments.
  (h) A statement of the assumptions, methodology, and data used to make cost projections.
  (i) A list of the association's assets, sorted by category or type of asset, such as stocks, bonds, or mutual funds, and the expected return on each asset.
  (j) The total amount of the association's discounted and undiscounted liabilities and a description and explanation of the liabilities, including an explanation of the association's definition of the terms discounted and undiscounted.
  (k) Measures taken by the association to contain costs.
  (l) A statement explaining what portion of the assessment to insureds as recognized in rates under subsection (20) is attributable to claims occurring in the previous 12 months, administrative costs, and the amount, if any, to adjust for past deficits.
  (m) A statement explaining any qualifications identified by the independent auditors in the most recent audit report prepared under subsection (21).
  (n) A loss payment summary for each of the preceding years by category.
  (o) For each of the preceding 10 years, an injury type summary, categorizing the injuries suffered by claimants the payment of whose claims are being reimbursed by the association, by brain injuries, injuries resulting in quadriplegia, injuries resulting in paraplegia, burn injuries, and other injuries.
  (p) A summary of investment returns over the preceding 10 years showing the investment balance, the investment gain, and the percentage return on the investment balance.
  (q) A summary of the mortality assumptions used in making cost projections.
  (r) A summary of any financial practices that differ from those found in the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Accounting Practices and Procedures Manual.
  (26) By September 1 of each year, the association shall prepare and provide to the committees of the senate and house of representatives with jurisdiction over insurance matters an annual report of the association. The report must contain all of the following:
  (a) An executive summary.
  (b) A discussion of the mortality assumptions used by the association in making cost projections.
  (c) An evaluation of the accuracy of the association's actuarial assumptions over the preceding 5 years.
  (d) The annual consumer statement prepared under subsection (25).
  (e) Anything else the association determines is necessary to advise the legislature about the operations of the association.
  (27) The association does not have liability for losses occurring before July 1, 1978. After July 1, 2020, the association does not have liability for an ultimate loss under personal protection insurance coverage for a motor vehicle accident policy to which a limit under section 3107c(1)(a), (b), or (c) is applicable.
  (28) As used in this section:
  (a) "Association" means the catastrophic claims association created in subsection (1).
  (b) "Board" means the board of directors of the association created in subsection (9).
  (c) "Car" includes a motorcycle but does not include a historic vehicle.
  (d) "Consumer Price Index" means the percentage of change in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers in the United States city average for all items for the 24 months before October 1 of the year before the July 1 effective date of the biennial adjustment under subsection (2)(o) as reported by the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and as certified by the director.
  (e) "Historic vehicle" means a vehicle that is a registered historic vehicle under section 803a or 803p of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.803a and 257.803p.
  (f) "Motor vehicle accident policy" means a policy providing the coverages required under section 3101(1).
  (g) "Ultimate loss" means the actual loss amounts that a member is obligated to pay and that are paid or payable by the member, and do not include claim expenses. An ultimate loss is incurred by the association on the date that the loss occurs.


History: Add. 1978, Act 136, Eff. July 1, 1978 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 2001, Act 3, Eff. July 1, 2002 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 662, Eff. July 1, 2003 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.For transfer of position of commissioner of office of financial and insurance regulation as member or chairperson of board or commission to director of department of insurance and financial services, see E.R.O. No. 2013-1, compiled at MCL 550.991.
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3105 Insurer liable for personal protection benefits without regard to fault; “bodily injury” and “accidental bodily injury” defined.

Sec. 3105.

  (1) Under personal protection insurance an insurer is liable to pay benefits for accidental bodily injury arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle, subject to the provisions of this chapter.
  (2) Personal protection insurance benefits are due under this chapter without regard to fault.
  (3) Bodily injury includes death resulting therefrom and damage to or loss of a person's prosthetic devices in connection with the injury.
  (4) Bodily injury is accidental as to a person claiming personal protection insurance benefits unless suffered intentionally by the injured person or caused intentionally by the claimant. Even though a person knows that bodily injury is substantially certain to be caused by his act or omission, he does not cause or suffer injury intentionally if he acts or refrains from acting for the purpose of averting injury to property or to any person including himself.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
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THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3106 Accidental bodily injury arising out of ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of parked vehicle as motor vehicle; conditions.

Sec. 3106.

  (1) Accidental bodily injury does not arise out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a parked vehicle as a motor vehicle unless any of the following occur:
  (a) The vehicle was parked in such a way as to cause unreasonable risk of the bodily injury which occurred.
  (b) Except as provided in subsection (2), the injury was a direct result of physical contact with equipment permanently mounted on the vehicle, while the equipment was being operated or used, or property being lifted onto or lowered from the vehicle in the loading or unloading process.
  (c) Except as provided in subsection (2), the injury was sustained by a person while occupying, entering into, or alighting from the vehicle.
  (2) Accidental bodily injury does not arise out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a parked vehicle as a motor vehicle if benefits under the worker's disability compensation act of 1969, Act No. 317 of the Public Acts of 1969, as amended, being sections 418.101 to 418.941 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, or under a similar law of another state or under a similar federal law, are available to an employee who sustains the injury in the course of his or her employment while doing either of the following:
  (a) Loading, unloading, or doing mechanical work on a vehicle unless the injury arose from the use or operation of another vehicle. As used in this subdivision, “another vehicle” does not include a motor vehicle being loaded on, unloaded from, or secured to, as cargo or freight, a motor vehicle.
  (b) Entering into or alighting from the vehicle unless the injury was sustained while entering into or alighting from the vehicle immediately after the vehicle became disabled. This subdivision shall not apply if the injury arose from the use or operation of another vehicle. As used in this subdivision, “another vehicle” does not include a motor vehicle being loaded on, unloaded from or secured to, as cargo or freight, a motor vehicle.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1981, Act 209, Eff. Jan. 1, 1982 ;-- Am. 1986, Act 318, Eff. June 1, 1987
Compiler's Notes: Section 2 of Act 209 of 1981 provides: “This amendatory act shall take effect January 1, 1982 and shall be applicable to all causes of action which occur after the effective date of this amendatory act.”
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THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3107 Expenses and work loss for which personal protection insurance benefits payable.

Sec. 3107.

  (1) Subject to the exceptions and limitations in this chapter, and subject to chapter 31A, personal protection insurance benefits are payable for the following:
  (a) Allowable expenses consisting of reasonable charges incurred for reasonably necessary products, services and accommodations for an injured person's care, recovery, or rehabilitation. Allowable expenses do not include either of the following:
  (i) Charges for a hospital room in excess of a reasonable and customary charge for semiprivate accommodations, unless the injured person requires special or intensive care.
  (ii) Funeral and burial expenses in excess of the amount set forth in the policy, which must not be less than $1,750.00 or more than $5,000.00.
  (b) Work loss consisting of loss of income from work an injured person would have performed during the first 3 years after the date of the accident if he or she had not been injured. Work loss does not include any loss after the date on which the injured person dies. Because the benefits received from personal protection insurance for loss of income are not taxable income, the benefits payable for the loss of income must be reduced 15% unless the claimant presents to the insurer in support of his or her claim reasonable proof of a lower value of the income tax advantage in his or her case, in which case the lower value must be applied. For the period beginning October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013, the benefits payable for work loss sustained in a single 30-day period and the income earned by an injured person for work during the same period together must not exceed $5,189.00, which maximum must be applied pro rata to any lesser period of work loss. Beginning October 1, 2013, the maximum must be adjusted annually to reflect changes in the cost of living under rules prescribed by the director, but any change in the maximum must be applied only to benefits arising out of accidents occurring after the date of change in the maximum.
  (c) Expenses not exceeding $20.00 per day, reasonably incurred in obtaining ordinary and necessary services in lieu of those that, if he or she had not been injured, an injured person would have performed during the first 3 years after the date of the accident, not for income but for the benefit of himself or herself or of his or her dependent.
  (2) Both of the following apply to personal protection insurance benefits payable under subsection (1):
  (a) A person who is 60 years of age or older and in the event of an accidental bodily injury would not be eligible to receive work loss benefits under subsection (1)(b) may waive coverage for work loss benefits by signing a waiver on a form provided by the insurer. An insurer shall offer a reduced premium rate to a person who waives coverage under this subdivision for work loss benefits. Waiver of coverage for work loss benefits applies only to work loss benefits payable to the person or persons who have signed the waiver form.
  (b) An insurer is not required to provide coverage for the medical use of marihuana or for expenses related to the medical use of marihuana.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1988, Act 312, Eff. Mar. 30, 1989 ;-- Am. 1991, Act 191, Eff. Jan. 1, 1992 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 542, Imd. Eff. Jan. 2, 2013 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Constitutionality: The legislature did not violate constitutional due process or equal protection in providing for cost-of-living increases for no-fault insurance work loss benefits under subdivision (b) of this section, but not for no-fault insurance survivors' loss benefits under MCL 500.3108. Davey v Detroit Automobile Inter-Insurance Exchange, 414 Mich 1; 322 NW2d 541 (1982).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
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Admin Rule: R 500.811 of the Michigan Administrative Code.


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3107a Basis of work loss for certain injured persons.

Sec. 3107a.

   Subject to the provisions of section 3107(1)(b), work loss for an injured person who is temporarily unemployed at the time of the accident or during the period of disability shall be based on earned income for the last month employed full time preceding the accident.


History: Add. 1975, Act 311, Imd. Eff. Dec. 22, 1975 ;-- Am. 1991, Act 191, Eff. Jan. 1, 1992
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3107b Reimbursement or coverage for certain expenses not required.

Sec. 3107b.

  Reimbursement or coverage for expenses within personal protection insurance coverage under section 3107 is not required for any of the following:
  (a) A practice of optometry service, unless that service was included in the definition of practice of optometry under section 17401 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.17401, as of May 20, 1992.
  (b) A practice of chiropractic service, unless that service was included in the definition of practice of chiropractic under section 16401 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.16401, as of January 1, 2009.
  (c) A practice of physical therapy service or practice as a physical therapist assistant service, unless that service was provided by a licensed physical therapist or physical therapist assistant under the supervision of a licensed physical therapist pursuant to a prescription from a health care professional who holds a license issued under part 166, 170, 175, or 180 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.16601 to 333.16648, 333.17001 to 333.17084, 333.17501 to 333.17556, and 333.18001 to 333.18058, or the equivalent license issued by another state.


History: Add. 1994, Act 438, Eff. Mar. 30, 1995 ;-- Am. 2009, Act 222, Imd. Eff. Jan. 5, 2010 ;-- Am. 2014, Act 263, Imd. Eff. July 1, 2014
Compiler's Notes: Senate Bill No. 493 was not enacted into law by the 87th Legislature.
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3108 Survivor's loss; benefits.

Sec. 3108.

  (1) Except as provided in subsection (2), personal protection insurance benefits are payable for a survivor's loss which consists of a loss, after the date on which the deceased died, of contributions of tangible things of economic value, not including services, that dependents of the deceased at the time of the deceased's death would have received for support during their dependency from the deceased if the deceased had not suffered the accidental bodily injury causing death and expenses, not exceeding $20.00 per day, reasonably incurred by these dependents during their dependency and after the date on which the deceased died in obtaining ordinary and necessary services in lieu of those that the deceased would have performed for their benefit if the deceased had not suffered the injury causing death. Except as provided in section (2) the benefits payable for a survivors' loss in connection with the death of a person in a single 30-day period shall not exceed $1,000.00 for accidents occurring before October 1, 1978, and shall not exceed $1,475.00 for accidents occurring on or after October 1, 1978, and is not payable beyond the first three years after the date of the accident.
  (2) The maximum payable shall be adjusted annually to reflect changes in the cost of living under rules prescribed by the commissioner. A change in the maximum shall apply only to benefits arising out of accidents occurring subsequent to the date of change in the maximum. The maximum shall apply to the aggregate benefits for all survivors payable under this section on account of the death of any one person.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 459, Imd. Eff. Oct. 16, 1978
Constitutionality: The legislature did not violate constitutional due process or equal protection in providing for cost-of-living increases for no-fault insurance work loss benefits under MCL 500.3107(b), but not for no-fault insurance survivors' loss benefits under this section. Davey v Detroit Automobile Inter-Insurance Exchange, 414 Mich 1; 322 NW2d 541 (1982).
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3109 Subtraction of other benefits from personal protection benefits; injured person defined; deductible provision.

Sec. 3109.

  (1) Benefits provided or required to be provided under the laws of any state or the federal government shall be subtracted from the personal protection insurance benefits otherwise payable for the injury under this chapter.
  (2) An injured person is a natural person suffering accidental bodily injury.
  (3) An insurer providing personal protection insurance benefits under this chapter may offer, at appropriately reduced premium rates, a deductible of a specified dollar amount. This deductible may be applicable to all or any specified types of personal protection insurance benefits, but shall apply only to benefits payable to the person named in the policy, his or her spouse, and any relative of either domiciled in the same household.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 454, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 2012
Constitutionality: In O'Donnel v State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, 404 Mich 524; 273 NW2d 829 (1979), the Michigan supreme court held that MCL 500.3109(1) does not violate the due process clause or the equal protection clause of the state or federal constitutions.In Underhill v Safeco Insurance Company, 407 Mich 175; 284 NW2d 463 (1979), the Michigan supreme court held that subsection (3) of this section authorizing the commissioner to approve deductibles was not an unconstitutional delegation of authority.The Michigan supreme court in Mathis v Interstate Motor Freight System, 408 Mich 164; 289 NW2d 708 (1980), held that MCL 500.3109(1) as applied to workers' compensation benefits is sustainable under the equal protection clause of the Michigan constitution.
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3109a Offering deductibles and exclusions reasonably related to other health and accident coverage; exclusion for qualified health coverage; reduced premium rates; applicability of exclusion; termination of qualified health coverage; refusal to insure for failure to obtain certain security prohibited; amount of premium reduction.

Sec. 3109a.

  (1) An insurer that provides personal protection insurance benefits under this chapter may offer deductibles and exclusions reasonably related to other health and accident coverage on the insured. Any deductibles and exclusions offered under this section must be offered at a reduced premium that reflects reasonably anticipated reductions in losses, expenses, or both, are subject to prior approval by the director, and must apply only to benefits payable to the person named in the policy, the spouse of the insured, and any relative of either domiciled in the same household.
  (2) For an insurance policy issued or renewed after July 1, 2020, the insurer shall offer to an applicant or named insured that selects a personal protection benefit limit under section 3107c(1)(b) an exclusion related to qualified health coverage. All of the following apply to that exclusion:
  (a) If the named insured has qualified health coverage as defined in section 3107d(7)(b)(i) that will cover injuries that occur as the result of a motor vehicle accident and if the named insured's spouse and any relatives of either the named insured or the spouse domiciled in the same household have qualified health coverage that will cover injuries that occur as the result of a motor vehicle accident, the premium for the personal protection insurance benefits payable under section 3107(1)(a) under the policy must be reduced by 100%.
  (b) If a member, but not all members, of the household covered by the insurance policy has qualified health coverage that will cover injuries that occur as the result of a motor vehicle accident, the insurer shall offer a reduced premium that reflects reasonably anticipated reductions in losses, expenses, or both. The reduction must be in addition to the rate rollback required by section 2111f and the share of the premium reduction for the policy attributable to any person with qualified health coverage must be 100%.
  (c) Subject to subdivision (d), a person subject to an exclusion under this subsection is not eligible for personal protection benefits under the insurance policy.
  (d) If a person subject to an exclusion under this subsection is no longer covered by the qualified health coverage, the named insured shall notify the insurer that the named insured or resident relative is no longer eligible for an exclusion. All of the following apply under this subdivision:
  (i) The named insured shall, within 30 days after the effective date of the termination of the qualified health coverage, obtain insurance that provides the security required under section 3101(1) that includes coverage that was excluded under this subsection.
  (ii) During the period described in subparagraph (i), if any person excluded suffers accidental bodily injury arising from a motor vehicle accident, the person is entitled to claim benefits under the assigned claims plan.
  (e) If the named insured does not obtain insurance that provides the security required under section 3101(1) that includes the coverage excluded under this subsection during the period described in subdivision (d)(i) and the named insured or any person excluded under the policy suffers accidental bodily injury arising from a motor vehicle accident, unless the injured person is entitled to coverage under some other policy, the injured person is not entitled to be paid personal protection insurance benefits under section 3107(1)(a) for the injury that occurred during the period in which coverage under this section was excluded.
  (3) An automobile insurer shall not refuse to prospectively insure, limit coverage available to, charge a reinstatement fee for, or increase the premiums for automobile insurance for an eligible person, as that term is defined in section 2103, solely because the person previously failed to obtain insurance that provides the security required under section 3101(1) in the time period provided under subsection (2)(d)(i).
  (4) The amount of a premium reduction under subsection (1) must appear in a conspicuous manner in the declarations for the policy, and be expressed as a dollar amount or a percentage.
  (5) As used in this section, "qualified health coverage" means that term as defined in section 3107d.


History: Add. 1974, Act 72, Eff. June 4, 1974 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 454, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 2012 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 22, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Constitutionality: In O'Donnel v State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, 404 Mich 524; 273 NW2d 829 (1979), the Michigan supreme court declared this statute constitutional.
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3110 Dependents of deceased person; termination of dependency; accrual of personal protection benefits.

Sec. 3110.

  (1) The following persons are conclusively presumed to be dependents of a deceased person:
  (a) A wife is dependent on a husband with whom she lives at the time of his death.
  (b) A husband is dependent on a wife with whom he lives at the time of her death.
  (c) A child while under the age of 18 years, or over that age but physically or mentally incapacitated from earning, is dependent on the parent with whom he lives or from whom he receives support regularly at the time of the death of the parent.
  (2) In all other cases, questions of dependency and the extent of dependency shall be determined in accordance with the facts as they exist at the time of death.
  (3) The dependency of a surviving spouse terminates upon death or remarriage. The dependency of any other person terminates upon the death of the person and continues only so long as the person is under the age of 18 years, physically or mentally incapacitated from earning, or engaged full time in a formal program of academic or vocational education or training.
  (4) Personal protection insurance benefits payable for accidental bodily injury accrue not when the injury occurs but as the allowable expense, work loss or survivors' loss is incurred.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3111 Payment of personal protection insurance benefits for accident occurring out of state.

Sec. 3111.

  Personal protection insurance benefits are payable for accidental bodily injury suffered in an accident occurring out of this state, if the accident occurs within the United States, its territories and possessions, or Canada, and the person whose injury is the basis of the claim was at the time of the accident a named insured under a personal protection insurance policy, the spouse of a named insured, a relative of either domiciled in the same household, or an occupant of a vehicle involved in the accident, if the occupant was a resident of this state or if the owner or registrant of the vehicle was insured under a personal protection insurance policy or provided security approved by the secretary of state under section 3101(5).


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 22, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3112 Persons to whom personal protection insurance benefits payable; claim to recover overdue benefits; discharge of insurer's liability.

Sec. 3112.

  Personal protection insurance benefits are payable to or for the benefit of an injured person or, in case of his or her death, to or for the benefit of his or her dependents. A health care provider listed in section 3157 may make a claim and assert a direct cause of action against an insurer, or under the assigned claims plan under sections 3171 to 3175, to recover overdue benefits payable for charges for products, services, or accommodations provided to an injured person. Payment by an insurer in good faith of personal protection insurance benefits, to or for the benefit of a person who it believes is entitled to the benefits, discharges the insurer's liability to the extent of the payments unless the insurer has been notified in writing of the claim of some other person. If there is doubt about the proper person to receive the benefits or the proper apportionment among the persons entitled to the benefits, the insurer, the claimant, or any other interested person may apply to the circuit court for an appropriate order. The court may designate the payees and make an equitable apportionment, taking into account the relationship of the payees to the injured person and other factors as the court considers appropriate. In the absence of a court order directing otherwise the insurer may pay:
  (a) To the dependents of the injured person, the personal protection insurance benefits accrued before his or her death without appointment of an administrator or executor.
  (b) To the surviving spouse, the personal protection insurance benefits due any dependent children living with the spouse.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 21 of 2019 provides:"Enacting section 1. Section 3112 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3112, as amended by this amendatory act, applies to products, services, or accommodations provided after the effective date of this amendatory act."
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THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3113 Person not entitled to personal protection insurance benefits.

Sec. 3113.

  A person is not entitled to be paid personal protection insurance benefits for accidental bodily injury if at the time of the accident any of the following circumstances existed:
  (a) The person was willingly operating or willingly using a motor vehicle or motorcycle that was taken unlawfully, and the person knew or should have known that the motor vehicle or motorcycle was taken unlawfully.
  (b) The person was the owner or registrant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle involved in the accident with respect to which the security required by section 3101 or 3103 was not in effect.
  (c) The person was not a resident of this state, unless the person owned a motor vehicle that was registered and insured in this state.
  (d) The person was operating a motor vehicle or motorcycle as to which he or she was named as an excluded operator as allowed under section 3009(2).
  (e) The person was the owner or operator of a motor vehicle for which coverage was excluded under a policy exclusion authorized under section 3017.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1986, Act 93, Eff. July 8, 1986 ;-- Am. 2014, Act 489, Imd. Eff. Jan. 13, 2015 ;-- Am. 2016, Act 346, Eff. Mar. 21, 2017 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Section 2 of Act 93 of 1986 provides: “This amendatory act shall not apply to causes of action arising before the effective date of this amendatory act.”
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
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© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3114 Persons entitled to personal protection insurance benefits or personal injury benefits; order of priority for claim of motor vehicle occupant or motorcycle operator or passenger; assigned claims plan; 2 or more insurers in same order of priority; partial recoupment; definitions.

Sec. 3114.

  (1) Except as provided in subsections (2), (3), and (5), a personal protection insurance policy described in section 3101(1) applies to accidental bodily injury to the person named in the policy, the person's spouse, and a relative of either domiciled in the same household, if the injury arises from a motor vehicle accident. A personal injury insurance policy described in section 3103(2) applies to accidental bodily injury to the person named in the policy, the person's spouse, and a relative of either domiciled in the same household, if the injury arises from a motorcycle accident. If personal protection insurance benefits or personal injury benefits described in section 3103(2) are payable to or for the benefit of an injured person under his or her own policy and would also be payable under the policy of his or her spouse, relative, or relative's spouse, the injured person's insurer shall pay all of the benefits up to the coverage level applicable under section 3107c to the injured person's policy, and is not entitled to recoupment from the other insurer.
  (2) A person who suffers accidental bodily injury while an operator or a passenger of a motor vehicle operated in the business of transporting passengers shall receive the personal protection insurance benefits to which the person is entitled from the insurer of the motor vehicle. This subsection does not apply to a passenger in any of the following, unless the passenger is not entitled to personal protection insurance benefits under any other policy:
  (a) A school bus, as defined by the department of education, providing transportation not prohibited by law.
  (b) A bus operated by a common carrier of passengers certified by the department of transportation.
  (c) A bus operating under a government sponsored transportation program.
  (d) A bus operated by or providing service to a nonprofit organization.
  (e) A taxicab insured as prescribed in section 3101 or 3102.
  (f) A bus operated by a canoe or other watercraft, bicycle, or horse livery used only to transport passengers to or from a destination point.
  (g) A transportation network company vehicle.
  (h) A motor vehicle insured under a policy for which the person named in the policy has elected to not maintain coverage for personal protection insurance benefits under section 3107d or as to which an exclusion under section 3109a(2) applies.
  (3) An employee, his or her spouse, or a relative of either domiciled in the same household, who suffers accidental bodily injury while an occupant of a motor vehicle owned or registered by the employer, shall receive personal protection insurance benefits to which the employee is entitled from the insurer of the furnished vehicle.
  (4) Except as provided in subsections (2) and (3), a person who suffers accidental bodily injury arising from a motor vehicle accident while an occupant of a motor vehicle who is not covered under a personal protection insurance policy as provided in subsection (1) shall claim personal protection insurance benefits under the assigned claims plan under sections 3171 to 3175. This subsection does not apply to a person insured under a policy for which the person named in the policy has elected to not maintain coverage for personal protection insurance benefits under section 3107d or as to which an exclusion under section 3109(2) applies, or who is not entitled to be paid personal protection benefits under section 3107d(6)(c) or 3109a(2)(d)(ii).
  (5) Subject to subsections (6) and (7), a person who suffers accidental bodily injury arising from a motor vehicle accident that shows evidence of the involvement of a motor vehicle while an operator or passenger of a motorcycle shall claim personal protection insurance benefits from insurers in the following order of priority:
  (a) The insurer of the owner or registrant of the motor vehicle involved in the accident.
  (b) The insurer of the operator of the motor vehicle involved in the accident.
  (c) The motor vehicle insurer of the operator of the motorcycle involved in the accident.
  (d) The motor vehicle insurer of the owner or registrant of the motorcycle involved in the accident.
  (6) If an applicable insurance policy in an order of priority under subsection (5) is a policy for which the person named in the policy has elected to not maintain coverage for personal protection insurance benefits under section 3107d, or as to which an exclusion under section 3109(2) applies, the injured person shall claim benefits only under other policies, subject to subsection (7), in the same order of priority for which no such election has been made. If there are no other policies for which no such election has been made, the injured person shall claim benefits under the next order of priority or, if there is not a next order of priority, under the assigned claims plan under sections 3171 to 3175.
  (7) If personal protection insurance benefits are payable under subsection (5) under 2 or more insurance policies in the same order of priority, the benefits are only payable up to an aggregate coverage limit that equals the highest available coverage limit under any 1 of the policies.
  (8) Subject to subsections (6) and (7), if 2 or more insurers are in the same order of priority to provide personal protection insurance benefits under subsection (5), an insurer that pays benefits due is entitled to partial recoupment from the other insurers in the same order of priority, and a reasonable amount of partial recoupment of the expense of processing the claim, in order to accomplish equitable distribution of the loss among all of the insurers.
  (9) As used in this section:
  (a) "Personal vehicle", "transportation network company digital network", and "transportation network company prearranged ride" mean those terms as defined in section 2 of the limousine, taxicab, and transportation network company act, 2016 PA 345, MCL 257.2102.
  (b) "Transportation network company vehicle" means a personal vehicle while the driver is logged on to the transportation network company digital network or while the driver is engaged in a transportation network company prearranged ride.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1975, Act 137, Imd. Eff. July 3, 1975 ;-- Am. 1976, Act 356, Imd. Eff. Dec. 21, 1976 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 53, Imd. Eff. July 5, 1977 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 372, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 1984 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 38, Imd. Eff. Mar. 7, 2002 ;-- Am. 2016, Act 347, Eff. Mar. 21, 2017 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: In subsections (4) and (6), the reference to "section 3109(2)" evidently should read "section 3109a(2)."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3115 Personal protection insurance benefits under the assigned claims plan for claims of persons not occupants of vehicle.

Sec. 3115.

  Except as provided in section 3114(1), a person who suffers accidental bodily injury while not an occupant of a motor vehicle shall claim personal protection insurance benefits under the assigned claims plan under sections 3171 to 3175.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Constitutionality: The legislative scheme which allows motorcyclists to receive no-fault benefits for personal injuries without requiring them to maintain no-fault security does not deny automobile drivers equal protection or due process of law. Underhill v Safeco Insurance Company, 407 Mich 175; 284 NW2d 463 (1979).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3116 Value of claim in tort; subtraction from or reimbursement for benefits.

Sec. 3116.

  (1) A subtraction from personal protection insurance benefits must not be made because of the value of a claim in tort based on the same accidental bodily injury.
  (2) A subtraction from or reimbursement for personal protection insurance benefits paid or payable under this chapter may be made only if recovery is realized on a tort claim arising from an accident that occurred outside this state, a tort claim brought in this state against the owner or operator of a motor vehicle with respect to which the security required by section 3101 was not in effect, or a tort claim brought in this state based on intentionally caused harm to persons or property, and may be made only to the extent that the recovery realized by the claimant is for damages for which the claimant has received or would otherwise be entitled to receive personal protection insurance benefits. A subtraction may be made only to the extent of the recovery, exclusive of reasonable attorney fees and other reasonable expenses incurred in effecting the recovery. If personal protection insurance benefits have already been received, the claimant shall repay to the insurers out of the recovery an amount equal to the benefits received, but not more than the recovery exclusive of reasonable attorney fees and other reasonable expenses incurred in effecting the recovery. The insurer has a lien on the recovery to this extent. A recovery by an injured person or his or her estate for loss suffered by the person may not be subtracted in calculating benefits due a dependent after the death and a recovery by a dependent for loss suffered by the dependent after the death may not be subtracted in calculating benefits due the injured person.
  (3) A personal protection insurer with a right of reimbursement under subsection (1), if suffering loss from inability to collect reimbursement out of a payment received by a claimant on a tort claim, is entitled to indemnity from a person who, with notice of the insurer's interest, made the payment to the claimant without making the claimant and the insurer joint payees as their interests may appear or without obtaining the insurer's consent to a different method of payment.
  (4) A subtraction or reimbursement is not due the claimant's insurer from that portion of any recovery to the extent that recovery is realized for noneconomic loss as provided in section 3135(1) and (2)(b) or for allowable expenses, work loss, and survivor's loss as defined in sections 3107 to 3110 in excess of the amount recovered by the claimant from his or her insurer.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 461, Imd. Eff. Oct. 16, 1978 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 22, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3121 Liability for accidental damage to tangible property.

Sec. 3121.

  (1) Under property protection insurance an insurer is liable to pay benefits for accidental damage to tangible property arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle subject to the provisions of this section and sections 3123, 3125, and 3127. However, accidental damage to tangible property does not include accidental damage to tangible property, other than the insured motor vehicle, that occurs within the course of a business of repairing, servicing, or otherwise maintaining motor vehicles.
  (2) Property protection insurance benefits are due under the conditions stated in this chapter without regard to fault.
  (3) Damage to tangible property consists of physical injury to or destruction of the property and loss of use of the property so injured or destroyed.
  (4) Damage to tangible property is accidental, as to a person claiming property protection insurance benefits, unless it is suffered or caused intentionally by the claimant. Even though a person knows that damage to tangible property is substantially certain to be caused by his or her act or omission, he or she does not cause or suffer such damage intentionally if he or she acts or refrains from acting for the purpose of averting injury to any person, including himself or herself, or for the purpose of averting damage to tangible property.
  (5) Property protection insurance benefits consist of the lesser of reasonable repair costs or replacement costs less depreciation and, if applicable, the value of loss of use. However, property protection insurance benefits paid under 1 policy for damage to all tangible property arising from 1 accident shall not exceed $1,000,000.00.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1993, Act 290, Imd. Eff. Dec. 28, 1993
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3123 Exclusions from property protection insurance benefits.

Sec. 3123.

  (1) Damage to the following kinds of property is excluded from property protection insurance benefits:
  (a) Vehicles and their contents, including trailers, operated or designed for operation upon a public highway by power other than muscular power, unless the vehicle is parked in a manner as not to cause unreasonable risk of the damage which occurred.
  (b) Property owned by a person named in a property protection insurance policy, the person's spouse or a relative of either domiciled in the same household, if the person named, the person's spouse, or the relative was the owner, registrant, or operator of a vehicle involved in the motor vehicle accident out of which the property damage arose.
  (2) Property protection insurance benefits are not payable for property damage arising from motor vehicle accidents occurring outside the state.
  (3) Property protection insurance benefits are not payable for property damage to utility transmission lines, wires, or cables arising from the failure of a municipality, utility company, or cable television company to comply with the requirements of section 16 of Act No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1925, being section 247.186 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 65, Imd. Eff. Mar. 14, 1978
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3125 Priorities in claiming property protection benefits.

Sec. 3125.

   A person suffering accidental property damage shall claim property protection insurance benefits from insurers in the following order of priority: insurers of owners or registrants of vehicles involved in the accident; and insurers of operators of vehicles involved in the accident.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3127 Distribution of loss, reimbursement, and indemnification among property protection insurers.

Sec. 3127.

   The provisions for distribution of loss and for reimbursement and indemnification among personal protection insurers as set forth in subsection (2) of section 3115 and in section 3116 also applies to property protection insurers.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3131 Residual liability insurance; coverage.

Sec. 3131.

  (1) Residual liability insurance shall cover bodily injury and property damage which occurs within the United States, its territories and possessions, or in Canada. This insurance shall afford coverage equivalent to that required as evidence of automobile liability insurance under the financial responsibility laws of the place in which the injury or damage occurs. In this state this insurance shall afford coverage for automobile liability retained by section 3135.
  (2) This section shall not require coverage in this state other than that required by section 3009(1). This section shall apply to all insurance contracts in force as of October 1, 1973, or entered into after that date.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 460, Imd. Eff. Oct. 16, 1978
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3135 Tort liability for noneconomic loss; exceptions; cause of action for damages; "serious impairment of body function" defined.

Sec. 3135.

  (1) A person remains subject to tort liability for noneconomic loss caused by his or her ownership, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle only if the injured person has suffered death, serious impairment of body function, or permanent serious disfigurement.
  (2) For a cause of action for damages under subsection (1) or (3)(d), all of the following apply:
  (a) The issues of whether the injured person has suffered serious impairment of body function or permanent serious disfigurement are questions of law for the court if the court finds either of the following:
  (i) There is no factual dispute concerning the nature and extent of the person's injuries.
  (ii) There is a factual dispute concerning the nature and extent of the person's injuries, but the dispute is not material to the determination whether the person has suffered a serious impairment of body function or permanent serious disfigurement. However, for a closed-head injury, a question of fact for the jury is created if a licensed allopathic or osteopathic physician who regularly diagnoses or treats closed-head injuries testifies under oath that there may be a serious neurological injury.
  (b) Damages must be assessed on the basis of comparative fault, except that damages must not be assessed in favor of a party who is more than 50% at fault.
  (c) Damages must not be assessed in favor of a party who was operating his or her own vehicle at the time the injury occurred and did not have in effect for that motor vehicle the security required by section 3101(1) at the time the injury occurred.
  (3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, tort liability arising from the ownership, maintenance, or use within this state of a motor vehicle with respect to which the security required by section 3101(1) was in effect is abolished except as to:
  (a) Intentionally caused harm to persons or property. Even though a person knows that harm to persons or property is substantially certain to be caused by his or her act or omission, the person does not cause or suffer that harm intentionally if he or she acts or refrains from acting for the purpose of averting injury to any person, including himself or herself, or for the purpose of averting damage to tangible property.
  (b) Damages for noneconomic loss as provided and limited in subsections (1) and (2).
  (c) Damages for allowable expenses, work loss, and survivor's loss as defined in sections 3107 to 3110, including all future allowable expenses and work loss, in excess of any applicable limit under section 3107c or the daily, monthly, and 3-year limitations contained in those sections, or without limit for allowable expenses if an election to not maintain that coverage was made under section 3107d or if an exclusion under section 3109a(2) applies. The party liable for damages is entitled to an exemption reducing his or her liability by the amount of taxes that would have been payable on account of income the injured person would have received if he or she had not been injured.
  (d) Damages for economic loss by a nonresident. However, to recover under this subdivision, the nonresident must have suffered death, serious impairment of body function, or permanent serious disfigurement.
  (e) Damages up to $1,000.00 to a motor vehicle or, for motor vehicle accidents that occur after July 1, 2020, up to $3,000.00 to a motor vehicle, to the extent that the damages are not covered by insurance. An action for damages under this subdivision must be conducted as provided in subsection (4).
  (4) All of the following apply to an action for damages under subsection (3)(e):
  (a) Damages must be assessed on the basis of comparative fault, except that damages must not be assessed in favor of a party who is more than 50% at fault.
  (b) Liability is not a component of residual liability, as prescribed in section 3131, for which maintenance of security is required by this act.
  (c) The action must be commenced, whenever legally possible, in the small claims division of the district court or the municipal court. If the defendant or plaintiff removes the action to a higher court and does not prevail, the judge may assess costs.
  (d) A decision of the court is not res judicata in any proceeding to determine any other liability arising from the same circumstances that gave rise to the action.
  (e) Damages must not be assessed if the damaged motor vehicle was being operated at the time of the damage without the security required by section 3101(1).
  (5) As used in this section, "serious impairment of body function" means an impairment that satisfies all of the following requirements:
  (a) It is objectively manifested, meaning it is observable or perceivable from actual symptoms or conditions by someone other than the injured person.
  (b) It is an impairment of an important body function, which is a body function of great value, significance, or consequence to the injured person.
  (c) It affects the injured person's general ability to lead his or her normal life, meaning it has had an influence on some of the person's capacity to live in his or her normal manner of living. Although temporal considerations may be relevant, there is no temporal requirement for how long an impairment must last. This examination is inherently fact and circumstance specific to each injured person, must be conducted on a case-by-case basis, and requires comparison of the injured person's life before and after the incident.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1979, Act 145, Imd. Eff. Nov. 13, 1979 ;-- Am. 1979, Act 147, Imd. Eff. Nov. 13, 1979 ;-- Am. 1995, Act 222, Eff. Mar. 28, 1996 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 697, Eff. Mar. 31, 2003 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 158, Eff. Oct. 1, 2012 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 22, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.Enacting section 2 of Act 21 of 2019 provides:"Enacting section 2. Section 3135 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3135, as amended by this amendatory act, is intended to codify and give full effect to the opinion of the Michigan supreme court in McCormick v Carrier, 487 Mich 180 (2010)."Enacting section 1 of Act 22 of 2019 provides:"Enacting section 1. Section 3135 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3135, as amended by this amendatory act, is intended to codify and give full effect to the opinion of the Michigan supreme court in McCormick v Carrier, 487 Mich 180 (2010)."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3141 Notice of accident.

Sec. 3141.

   An insurer may require written notice to be given as soon as practicable after an accident involving a motor vehicle with respect to which the policy affords the security required by this chapter.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3142 Personal protection insurance benefits payable as loss accrues; overdue benefits; interest.

Sec. 3142.

  (1) Personal protection insurance benefits are payable as loss accrues.
  (2) Subject to subsection (3), personal protection insurance benefits are overdue if not paid within 30 days after an insurer receives reasonable proof of the fact and of the amount of loss sustained. Subject to subsection (3), if reasonable proof is not supplied as to the entire claim, the amount supported by reasonable proof is overdue if not paid within 30 days after the proof is received by the insurer. Subject to subsection (3), any part of the remainder of the claim that is later supported by reasonable proof is overdue if not paid within 30 days after the proof is received by the insurer. For the purpose of calculating the extent to which benefits are overdue, payment must be treated as made on the date a draft or other valid instrument was placed in the United States mail in a properly addressed, postpaid envelope, or, if not so posted, on the date of delivery.
  (3) For personal protection insurance benefits under section 3107(1)(a), if a bill for the product, service, accommodations, or training is not provided to the insurer within 90 days after the product, service, accommodations, or training is provided, the insurer has 60 days in addition to 30 days provided under subsection (2) to pay before the benefits are overdue.
  (4) An overdue payment bears simple interest at the rate of 12% per annum.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3143 Assignment of right to future benefits void.

Sec. 3143.

   An agreement for assignment of a right to benefits payable in the future is void.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3145 Limitation of actions for recovery of personal or property protection insurance benefits; period of limitations; tolling; notice of injury.

Sec. 3145.

  (1) An action for recovery of personal protection insurance benefits payable under this chapter for an accidental bodily injury may not be commenced later than 1 year after the date of the accident that caused the injury unless written notice of injury as provided in subsection (4) has been given to the insurer within 1 year after the accident or unless the insurer has previously made a payment of personal protection insurance benefits for the injury.
  (2) Subject to subsection (3), if the notice has been given or a payment has been made, the action may be commenced at any time within 1 year after the most recent allowable expense, work loss, or survivor's loss has been incurred. However, the claimant may not recover benefits for any portion of the loss incurred more than 1 year before the date on which the action was commenced.
  (3) A period of limitations applicable under subsection (2) to the commencement of an action and the recovery of benefits is tolled from the date of a specific claim for payment of the benefits until the date the insurer formally denies the claim. This subsection does not apply if the person claiming the benefits fails to pursue the claim with reasonable diligence.
  (4) The notice of injury required by subsection (1) may be given to the insurer or any of its authorized agents by a person claiming to be entitled to benefits for the injury, or by someone in the person's behalf. The notice must give the name and address of the claimant and indicate in ordinary language the name of the person injured and the time, place, and nature of the person's injury.
  (5) An action for recovery of property protection insurance benefits may not be commenced later than 1 year after the accident.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3146 Limitation of action by insurer for recovery or indemnity.

Sec. 3146.

   An action by an insurer to enforce its rights of recovery or indemnity under section 3116 may not be commenced later than 1 year after payment has been received by a claimant upon a tort claim with respect to which the insurer has a right of reimbursement or recovery under section 3116.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3148 Attorney's fee; restrictions.

Sec. 3148.

  (1) Subject to subsections (4) and (5), an attorney is entitled to a reasonable fee for advising and representing a claimant in an action for personal or property protection insurance benefits that are overdue. The attorney's fee is a charge against the insurer in addition to the benefits recovered, if the court finds that the insurer unreasonably refused to pay the claim or unreasonably delayed in making proper payment. An attorney advising or representing an injured person concerning a claim for payment of personal protection insurance benefits from an insurer shall not claim, file, or serve a lien for payment of a fee or fees until both of the following apply:
  (a) A payment for the claim is authorized under this chapter.
  (b) A payment for the claim is overdue under this chapter.
  (2) A court may award an insurer a reasonable amount against a claimant as an attorney fee for the insurer's attorney in defending against a claim that was in some respect fraudulent or so excessive as to have no reasonable foundation. A court may award an insurer a reasonable amount against a claimant's attorney as an attorney fee for defending against a claim for which the client was solicited by the attorney in violation of the laws of this state or the Michigan rules of professional conduct.
  (3) To the extent that personal or property protection insurance benefits are then due or thereafter come due to the claimant because of loss resulting from the injury on which the claim is based, an attorney fee awarded in favor of the insurer may be taken as an offset against the benefits. Judgment may also be entered against the claimant for any amount of an attorney fee awarded that is not offset against benefits or otherwise paid.
  (4) For a dispute over payment for allowable expenses under section 3107(1)(a) for attendant care or nursing services, attorney fees must not be awarded in relation to future payments ordered more than 3 years after the trial court judgment or order is entered. If attendant care or nursing services are subsequently suspended or terminated, attorney fees on future payments may be again awarded for not more than 3 years after a new trial court judgment or order is entered.
  (5) A court shall not award a fee to an attorney for advising or representing an injured person in an action for personal or property protection insurance benefits for a treatment, product, service, rehabilitative occupational training, or accommodation provided to the injured person if the attorney or a related person of the attorney has, or had at the time the treatment, product, service, rehabilitative occupational training, or accommodation was provided, a direct or indirect financial interest in the person that provided the treatment, product, service, rehabilitative occupational training, or accommodation. For purposes of this subsection, circumstances in which an attorney has a direct or indirect financial interest include, but are not limited to, the person that provided the treatment, product, service, rehabilitative occupational training, or accommodation making a direct or indirect payment or granting a financial incentive to the attorney or a related person of the attorney relating to the treatment, product, service, rehabilitative occupational training, or accommodation within 24 months before or after the treatment, product, service, rehabilitative occupational training, or accommodation is provided.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3151 Submission to mental or physical examination; physician requirements.

Sec. 3151.

  (1) If the mental or physical condition of a person is material to a claim that has been or may be made for past or future personal protection insurance benefits, at the request of an insurer the person shall submit to mental or physical examination by physicians. A personal protection insurer may include reasonable provisions that are in accord with this section in a personal protection insurance policy for mental and physical examination of persons claiming personal protection insurance benefits.
  (2) A physician who conducts a mental or physical examination under this section must be licensed as a physician in this state or another state and meet the following criteria, as applicable:
  (a) If care is being provided to the person to be examined by a specialist, the examining physician must specialize in the same specialty as the physician providing the care, and if the physician providing the care is board certified in the specialty, the examining physician must be board certified in that specialty.
  (b) During the year immediately preceding the examination, the examining physician must have devoted a majority of his or her professional time to either or both of the following:
  (i) The active clinical practice of medicine and, if subdivision (a) applies, the active clinical practice relevant to the specialty.
  (ii) The instruction of students in an accredited medical school or in an accredited residency or clinical research program for physicians and, if subdivision (a) applies, the instruction of students is in the specialty.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 22, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3152 Report of mental or physical examination.

Sec. 3152.

   If requested by a person examined, a party causing an examination to be made shall deliver to him a copy of every written report concerning the examination rendered by an examining physician, at least 1 of which reports shall set out his findings and conclusions in detail. After such request and delivery, the party causing the examination to be made is entitled upon request to receive from the person examined every written report available to him or his representative concerning any examination relevant to the claim, previously or thereafter made, of the same mental or physical condition, and the names and addresses of physicians and medical care facilities rendering diagnoses or treatment in regard to the injury or to a relevant past injury, and shall authorize the insurer to inspect and copy records of physicians, hospitals, clinics or other medical facilities relevant to the claim. By requesting and obtaining a report of the examination so ordered or by taking the deposition of the examiner, the person examined waives any privilege he may have, in relation to the claim for benefits, regarding the testimony of every other person who has examined or may thereafter examine him in respect of the same mental or physical condition.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3153 Court orders as to noncompliance with MCL 500.3151 and 500.3152.

Sec. 3153.

   A court may make such orders in regard to the refusal to comply with sections 3151 and 3152 as are just, except that an order shall not be entered directing the arrest of a person for disobeying an order to submit to a physical or mental examination. The orders that may be made in regard to such a refusal include, but are not limited to:
  (a) An order that the mental or physical condition of the disobedient person shall be taken to be established for the purposes of the claim in accordance with the contention of the party obtaining the order.
  (b) An order refusing to allow the disobedient person to support or oppose designated claims or defenses, or prohibiting him from introducing evidence of mental or physical condition.
  (c) An order rendering judgment by default against the disobedient person as to his entire claim or a designated part of it.
  (d) An order requiring the disobedient person to reimburse the insurer for reasonable attorneys' fees and expenses incurred in defense against the claim.
  (e) An order requiring delivery of a report, in conformity with section 3152, on such terms as are just, and if a physician fails or refuses to make the report a court may exclude his testimony if offered at trial.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3157 Charges for treatment or training for injured persons; limitation on eligibility for payment or reimbursement; applicability; "freestanding rehabilitation facility" defined; qualification for payment requirements; attendant care; neurological rehabilitation clinic; applicability to ambulance operation; definitions.

Sec. 3157.

  (1) Subject to subsections (2) to (14), a physician, hospital, clinic, or other person that lawfully renders treatment to an injured person for an accidental bodily injury covered by personal protection insurance, or a person that provides rehabilitative occupational training following the injury, may charge a reasonable amount for the treatment or training. The charge must not exceed the amount the person customarily charges for like treatment or training in cases that do not involve insurance.
  (2) Subject to subsections (3) to (14), a physician, hospital, clinic, or other person that renders treatment or rehabilitative occupational training to an injured person for an accidental bodily injury covered by personal protection insurance is not eligible for payment or reimbursement under this chapter for more than the following:
  (a) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2021 and before July 2, 2022, 200% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (b) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2022 and before July 2, 2023, 195% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (c) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2023, 190% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (3) Subject to subsections (5) to (14), a physician, hospital, clinic, or other person identified in subsection (4) that renders treatment or rehabilitative occupational training to an injured person for an accidental bodily injury covered by personal protection insurance is eligible for payment or reimbursement under this chapter of not more than the following:
  (a) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2021 and before July 2, 2022, 230% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (b) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2022 and before July 2, 2023, 225% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (c) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2023, 220% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (4) Subject to subsection (5), subsection (3) only applies to a physician, hospital, clinic, or other person if either of the following applies to the person rendering the treatment or training:
  (a) On July 1 of the year in which the person renders the treatment or training, the person has 20% or more, but less than 30%, indigent volume determined pursuant to the methodology used by the department of health and human services in determining inpatient medical/surgical factors used in measuring eligibility for Medicaid disproportionate share payments.
  (b) The person is a freestanding rehabilitation facility. Each year the director shall designate not more than 2 freestanding rehabilitation facilities to qualify for payments under subsection (3) for that year. As used in this subdivision, "freestanding rehabilitation facility" means an acute care hospital to which all of the following apply:
  (i) The hospital has staff with specialized and demonstrated rehabilitation medicine expertise.
  (ii) The hospital possesses sophisticated technology and specialized facilities.
  (iii) The hospital participates in rehabilitation research and clinical education.
  (iv) The hospital assists patients to achieve excellent rehabilitation outcomes.
  (v) The hospital coordinates necessary post-discharge services.
  (vi) The hospital is accredited by 1 or more third-party, independent organizations focused on quality.
  (vii) The hospital serves the rehabilitation needs of catastrophically injured patients in this state.
  (viii) The hospital was in existence on May 1, 2019.
  (5) To qualify for a payment under subsection (4)(a), a physician, hospital, clinic, or other person shall provide the director with all documents and information requested by the director that the director determines are necessary to allow the director to determine whether the person qualifies. The director shall annually review documents and information provided under this subsection and, if the person qualifies under subsection (4)(a), shall certify the person as qualifying and provide a list of qualifying persons to insurers and other persons that provide the security required under section 3101(1). A physician, hospital, clinic, or other person that provides 30% or more of its total treatment or training as described under subsection (4)(a) is entitled to receive, instead of an applicable percentage under subsection (3), 250% of the amount payable to the person for the treatment or training under Medicare.
  (6) Subject to subsections (7) to (14), a hospital that is a level I or level II trauma center that renders treatment to an injured person for an accidental bodily injury covered by personal protection insurance, if the treatment is for an emergency medical condition and rendered before the patient is stabilized and transferred, is not eligible for payment or reimbursement under this chapter of more than the following:
  (a) For treatment rendered after July 1, 2021 and before July 2, 2022, 240% of the amount payable to the hospital for the treatment under Medicare.
  (b) For treatment rendered after July 1, 2022 and before July 2, 2023, 235% of the amount payable to the hospital for the treatment under Medicare.
  (c) For treatment rendered after July 1, 2023, 230% of the amount payable to the hospital for the treatment under Medicare.
  (7) If Medicare does not provide an amount payable for a treatment or rehabilitative occupational training under subsection (2), (3), (5), or (6), the physician, hospital, clinic, or other person that renders the treatment or training is not eligible for payment or reimbursement under this chapter of more than the following, as applicable:
  (a) For a person to which subsection (2) applies, the applicable following percentage of the amount payable for the treatment or training under the person's charge description master in effect on January 1, 2019 or, if the person did not have a charge description master on that date, the applicable following percentage of the average amount the person charged for the treatment on January 1, 2019:
  (i) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2021 and before July 2, 2022, 55%.
  (ii) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2022 and before July 2, 2023, 54%.
  (iii) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2023, 52.5%.
  (b) For a person to which subsection (3) applies, the applicable following percentage of the amount payable for the treatment or training under the person's charge description master in effect on January 1, 2019 or, if the person did not have a charge description master on that date, the applicable following percentage of the average amount the person charged for the treatment or training on January 1, 2019:
  (i) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2021 and before July 2, 2022, 70%.
  (ii) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2022 and before July 2, 2023, 68%.
  (iii) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2023, 66.5%.
  (c) For a person to which subsection (5) applies, 78% of the amount payable for the treatment or training under the person's charge description master in effect on January 1, 2019 or, if the person did not have a charge description master on that date, 78% of the average amount the person charged for the treatment on January 1, 2019.
  (d) For a person to which subsection (6) applies, the applicable following percentage of the amount payable for the treatment under the person's charge description master in effect on January 1, 2019 or, if the person did not have a charge description master on that date, the applicable following percentage of the average amount the person charged for the treatment on January 1, 2019:
  (i) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2021 and before July 2, 2022, 75%.
  (ii) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2022 and before July 2, 2023, 73%.
  (iii) For treatment or training rendered after July 1, 2023, 71%.
  (8) For any change to an amount payable under Medicare as provided in subsection (2), (3), (5), or (6) that occurs after the effective date of the amendatory act that added this subsection, the change must be applied to the amount allowed for payment or reimbursement under that subsection. However, an amount allowed for payment or reimbursement under subsection (2), (3), (5), or (6) must not exceed the average amount charged by the physician, hospital, clinic, or other person for the treatment or training on January 1, 2019.
  (9) An amount that is to be applied under subsection (7) or (8), that was in effect on January 1, 2019, including any prior adjustments to the amount made under this subsection, must be adjusted annually by the percentage change in the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index for the year preceding the adjustment.
  (10) For attendant care rendered in the injured person's home, an insurer is only required to pay benefits for attendant care up to the hourly limitation in section 315 of the worker's disability compensation act of 1969, 1969 PA 317, MCL 418.315. This subsection only applies if the attendant care is provided directly, or indirectly through another person, by any of the following:
  (a) An individual who is related to the injured person.
  (b) An individual who is domiciled in the household of the injured person.
  (c) An individual with whom the injured person had a business or social relationship before the injury.
  (11) An insurer may contract to pay benefits for attendant care for more than the hourly limitation under subsection (10).
  (12) A neurological rehabilitation clinic is not entitled to payment or reimbursement for a treatment, training, product, service, or accommodation unless the neurological rehabilitation clinic is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities or a similar organization recognized by the director for purposes of accreditation under this subsection. This subsection does not apply to a neurological rehabilitation clinic that is in the process of becoming accredited as required under this subsection on July 1, 2021, unless 3 years have passed since the beginning of that process and the neurological rehabilitation clinic is still not accredited.
  (13) Subsections (2) to (12) do not apply to emergency medical services rendered by an ambulance operation. As used in this subsection:
  (a) "Ambulance operation" means that term as defined in section 20902 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.20902.
  (b) "Emergency medical services" means that term as defined in section 20904 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.20904.
  (14) Subsections (2) to (13) apply to treatment or rehabilitative occupational training rendered after July 1, 2021.
  (15) As used in this section:
  (a) "Charge description master" means a uniform schedule of charges represented by the person as its gross billed charge for a given service or item, regardless of payer type.
  (b) "Consumer Price Index" means the most comprehensive index of consumer prices available for this state from the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  (c) "Emergency medical condition" means that term as defined in section 1395dd of the social security act, 42 USC 1395dd.
  (d) "Level I or level II trauma center" means a hospital that is verified as a level I or level II trauma center by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma.
  (e) "Medicaid" means a program for medical assistance established under subchapter XIX of the social security act, 42 USC 1396 to 1396w-5.
  (f) "Medicare" means fee for service payments under part A, B, or D of the federal Medicare program established under subchapter XVIII of the social security act, 42 USC 1395 to 1395lll, without regard to the limitations unrelated to the rates in the fee schedule such as limitation or supplemental payments related to utilization, readmissions, recaptures, bad debt adjustments, or sequestration.
  (g) "Neurological rehabilitation clinic" means a person that provides post-acute brain and spinal rehabilitation care.
  (h) "Person", as provided in section 114, includes, but is not limited to, an institution.
  (i) "Stabilized" means that term as defined in section 1395dd of the social security act, 42 USC 1395dd.
  (j) "Transfer" means that term as defined in section 1395dd of the social security act, 42 USC 1395dd.
  (k) "Treatment" includes, but is not limited to, products, services, and accommodations.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3158 Statement of earnings; report and records from medical institution.

Sec. 3158.

  (1) An employer, when a request is made by a personal protection insurer against whom a claim has been made, shall furnish forthwith, in a form approved by the commissioner of insurance, a sworn statement of the earnings since the time of the accidental bodily injury and for a reasonable period before the injury, of the person upon whose injury the claim is based.
  (2) A physician, hospital, clinic or other medical institution providing, before or after an accidental bodily injury upon which a claim for personal protection insurance benefits is based, any product, service or accommodation in relation to that or any other injury, or in relation to a condition claimed to be connected with that or any other injury, if requested to do so by the insurer against whom the claim has been made, (a) shall furnish forthwith a written report of the history, condition, treatment and dates and costs of treatment of the injured person and (b) shall produce forthwith and permit inspection and copying of its records regarding the history, condition, treatment and dates and costs of treatment.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3159 Discovery.

Sec. 3159.

   In a dispute regarding an insurer's right to discovery of facts about an injured person's earnings or about his history, condition, treatment and dates and costs of treatment, a court may enter an order for the discovery. The order may be made only on motion for good cause shown and upon notice to all persons having an interest, and shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions and scope of the discovery. A court, in order to protect against annoyance, embarrassment or oppression, as justice requires, may enter an order refusing discovery or specifying conditions of discovery and may order payments of costs and expenses of the proceeding, including reasonable fees for the appearance of attorneys at the proceedings, as justice requires.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3163 Automobile insurer; not required to provide personal and property protection insurance benefits to out-of-state residents; exception.

Sec. 3163.

  An insurer authorized to transact automobile liability insurance and personal and property protection insurance in this state is not required to provide personal protection insurance or property protection insurance benefits under this chapter for accidental bodily injury or property damage occurring in this state arising from the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle by an out-of-state resident who is insured under the insurer's automobile liability insurance policies, unless the out-of-state resident is the owner of a motor vehicle that is registered and insured in this state.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 697, Eff. Mar. 31, 2003 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3171 Assigned claims plan; organization and maintenance; participation; costs; rules; adoption and maintenance by Michigan automobile insurance placement facility; approval of plan; amendments; provisions; report; definitions.

Sec. 3171.

  (1) Until an assigned claims plan is approved under subsection (3), the secretary of state shall organize and maintain an assigned claims facility and plan. A self-insurer and insurer writing insurance as provided by this chapter in this state shall participate in the assigned claims plan. Costs incurred in the operation of the facility and the plan shall be allocated fairly among insurers and self-insurers. The secretary of state shall promulgate rules to implement the facility and plan in accordance with and subject to the administrative procedures act of 1969, 1969 PA 306, MCL 24.201 to 24.328. After an assigned claims plan is approved under subsection (3), the secretary of state shall continue to maintain the assigned claims facility and plan organized under this subsection as required by the plan approved under subsection (3).
  (2) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall adopt and maintain an assigned claims plan. A self-insurer or insurer writing insurance as provided by this chapter in this state shall participate in the assigned claims plan. Costs incurred in the administration of the assigned claims plan shall be allocated fairly among insurers and self-insurers. On approval under subsection (3), the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall implement the assigned claims plan.
  (3) By August 1, 2012, the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors shall adopt an assigned claims plan by majority vote and shall submit it to the commissioner for his or her approval. The commissioner shall review the plan within 30 days and respond in writing as provided in this subsection. If the commissioner finds that the plan meets the requirements of this chapter, he or she shall approve it. If the commissioner finds that the plan fails to meet the requirements of this chapter, he or she shall state in what respects the plan is deficient and shall afford the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors 10 days within which to correct the deficiency. If the commissioner and the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors fail to agree that the plan submitted, with any corrections, meets the requirements of this chapter, either party to the controversy may submit the issue to the circuit court for Ingham county for a determination. If the commissioner fails to render a written decision on the assigned claims plan within 30 days after receipt of the plan, the plan shall be considered approved. The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall forward a plan approved under this subsection to the secretary of state. The plan takes effect on approval by the commissioner.
  (4) Amendments to the assigned claims plan approved under subsection (3) shall be adopted by the board of governors and approved by the commissioner as provided in subsection (3). Until the date established in the plan under subsection (5)(c), the board of governors shall give the secretary of state advance notice of any proposed amendments to the plan.
  (5) The plan adopted under subsection (3) shall include all of the following:
  (a) The date on and after which all claims for benefits through the assigned claims plan under section 3172 shall be filed with the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.
  (b) The date by which existing claims that have been assigned under the plan maintained by the secretary of state under subsection (1) will be transferred to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility to be included in and administered under the adopted plan.
  (c) A date by which all functions of the assigned claims plan maintained by the secretary of state, with the exception of driver license and vehicle sanctions, will be transferred to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.
  (d) Requirements for the transfer of records relating to assigned claims from the secretary of state to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and the disposition by the secretary of state of records relating to assigned claims.
  (e) Reimbursement of the secretary of state by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for all of the following:
  (i) Expenses of developing the plan under subsection (6).
  (ii)Expenses of transferring operations from the assigned claims facility to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.
  (iii) Expenses incurred by the secretary of state after the transfer of operations from the assigned claims facility to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for operations performed by the secretary of state on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.
  (6) The secretary of state and the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall cooperate and mutually develop the aspects of the plan to be adopted under subsection (3) that are required under subsection (5).
  (7) The secretary of state shall provide the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility with all information necessary for the operation of the assigned claims fund.
  (8) One year after the date established under subsection (5)(c), the commissioner shall report in writing to the senate and house of representatives standing committees on insurance issues on the cost of the transfer of the assigned claims plan to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and the effectiveness of operations under the new plan.
  (9) As used in this section:
  (a) "Michigan automobile insurance placement facility" means the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility created under chapter 33.
  (b) "Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors" means the board of governors created under section 3310.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Imd. Eff. June 27, 2012
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance
Admin Rule: R 11.101 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3172 Conditions to obtaining personal protection insurance benefits through assigned claims plan; collection of unpaid benefits; application and reasonable proof of loss; payment of interest; reimbursement from defaulting insurers; reduction of benefits; definitions; effect of dispute between insurers; limitation on benefits.

Sec. 3172.

  (1) A person entitled to claim because of accidental bodily injury arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle in this state may claim personal protection insurance benefits through the assigned claims plan if any of the following apply:
  (a) No personal protection insurance is applicable to the injury.
  (b) No personal protection insurance applicable to the injury can be identified.
  (c) No personal protection insurance applicable to the injury can be ascertained because of a dispute between 2 or more automobile insurers concerning their obligation to provide coverage or the equitable distribution of the loss.
  (d) The only identifiable personal protection insurance applicable to the injury is, because of financial inability of 1 or more insurers to fulfill their obligations, inadequate to provide benefits up to the maximum prescribed.
  (2) Unpaid benefits due or coming due as described in subsection (1) may be collected under the assigned claims plan, and the insurer to which the claim is assigned is entitled to reimbursement from the defaulting insurers to the extent of their financial responsibility.
  (3) A person entitled to claim personal protection insurance benefits through the assigned claims plan under subsection (1) shall file a completed application on a claim form provided by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and provide reasonable proof of loss to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility or an insurer assigned to administer a claim on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility under the assigned claims plan shall specify in writing the materials that constitute a reasonable proof of loss within 60 days after receipt by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility of an application that complies with this subsection.
  (4) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility or an insurer assigned to administer a claim on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility under the assigned claims plan is not required to pay interest in connection with a claim for any period of time during which the claim is reasonably in dispute.
  (5) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, personal protection insurance benefits, including benefits arising from accidents occurring before March 29, 1985, payable through the assigned claims plan must be reduced to the extent that benefits covering the same loss are available from other sources, regardless of the nature or number of benefit sources available and regardless of the nature or form of the benefits, to a person claiming personal protection insurance benefits through the assigned claims plan. This subsection only applies if the personal protection insurance benefits are payable through the assigned claims plan under subsection (1)(a), (b), or (d). As used in this subsection, "sources" and "benefit sources" do not include the program for medical assistance for the medically indigent under the social welfare act, 1939 PA 280, MCL 400.1 to 400.119b, or health insurance for the aged and disabled under subchapter XVIII of the social security act, 42 USC 1395 to 1395lll.
  (6) If the obligation to provide personal protection insurance benefits cannot be ascertained because of a dispute between 2 or more automobile insurers concerning their obligation to provide coverage or the equitable distribution of the loss, and if a method of voluntary payment of benefits cannot be agreed upon among or between the disputing insurers, all of the following apply:
  (a) The insurers who are parties to the dispute shall, or the claimant may, immediately notify the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility of their inability to determine their statutory obligations.
  (b) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall assign the claim to an insurer and the insurer shall immediately provide personal protection insurance benefits to the claimant or claimants entitled to benefits.
  (c) The insurer assigned the claim by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall immediately commence an action on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility in circuit court to declare the rights and duties of any interested party.
  (d) The insurer to whom the claim is assigned shall join as parties defendant to the action commenced under subdivision (c) each insurer disputing either the obligation to provide personal protection insurance benefits or the equitable distribution of the loss among the insurers.
  (e) The circuit court shall declare the rights and duties of any interested party whether or not other relief is sought or could be granted.
  (f) After hearing the action, the circuit court shall determine the insurer or insurers, if any, obligated to provide the applicable personal protection insurance benefits and the equitable distribution, if any, among the insurers obligated, and shall order reimbursement to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility from the insurer or insurers to the extent of the responsibility as determined by the court. The reimbursement ordered under this subdivision must include all benefits and costs paid or incurred by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and all benefits and costs paid or incurred by insurers determined not to be obligated to provide applicable personal protection insurance benefits, including incurred attorney fees and interest at the rate prescribed in section 3175 applicable on December 31 of the year preceding the determination of the circuit court.
  (7) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and the insurer to whom a claim is assigned by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility are only required to provide personal protection insurance benefits under section 3107(1)(a) up to whichever of the following is applicable:
  (a) Unless subdivision (b) applies, the limit provided in section 3107c(1)(b).
  (b) If the person is entitled to claim benefits under the assigned claims plan under section 3107d(6)(c) or 3109a(2)(d)(ii), $2,000,000.00.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3173 Certain persons disqualified from receiving benefits under assigned claims plans.

Sec. 3173.

   A person who because of a limitation or exclusion in sections 3105 to 3116 is disqualified from receiving personal protection insurance benefits under a policy otherwise applying to his accidental bodily injury is also disqualified from receiving benefits under the assigned claims plan.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3173a Eligibility for benefits; initial determination; denial; notice; false statement.

Sec. 3173a.

  (1) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall review a claim for personal protection insurance benefits under the assigned claims plan, shall make an initial determination of the eligibility for benefits under this chapter and the assigned claims plan, and shall deny a claim that the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility determines is ineligible under this chapter or the assigned claims plan. If a claimant or person making a claim through or on behalf of a claimant fails to cooperate with the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility as required by subsection (2), the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall suspend benefits to the claimant under the assigned claims plan. A suspension under this subsection is not an irrevocable denial of benefits, and must continue only until the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility determines that the claimant or person making a claim through or on behalf of a claimant cooperates or resumes cooperation with the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall promptly notify in writing the claimant and any person that submitted a claim through or on behalf of a claimant of a denial and the reasons for the denial.
  (2) A claimant or a person making a claim through or on behalf of a claimant shall cooperate with the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility in its determination of eligibility and the settlement or defense of any claim or suit, including, but not limited to, submitting to an examination under oath and compliance with sections 3151 to 3153. There is a rebuttable presumption that a person has satisfied the duty to cooperate under this section if all of the following apply:
  (a) The person submitted a claim for personal protection insurance benefits under the assigned claims plan by submitting to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility a complete application on a form provided by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility in accordance with the assigned claims plan.
  (b) The person provided reasonable proof of loss under the assigned claims plan as described in section 3172.
  (c) If required under this subsection to submit to an examination under oath, the person submitted to the examination, subject to all of the following:
  (i) The person was provided at least 21 days' notice of the examination.
  (ii) The examination was conducted in a location reasonably convenient for the person.
  (iii) Any reasonable request by the person to reschedule the date, time, or location of the examination was accommodated.
  (3) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility may perform its functions and responsibilities under this section and the assigned claims plan directly or through an insurer assigned by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility to administer the claim on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. The assignment of a claim by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility to an insurer is not a determination of eligibility under this chapter or the assigned claims plan, and a claim assigned to an insurer by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility may later be denied if the claim is not eligible under this chapter or the assigned claims plan.
  (4) A person who presents or causes to be presented an oral or written statement, including computer-generated information, as part of or in support of a claim to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility, or to an insurer to which the claim is assigned under the assigned claims plan, for payment or another benefit knowing that the statement contains false information concerning a fact or thing material to the claim commits a fraudulent insurance act under section 4503 that is subject to the penalties imposed under section 4511. A claim that contains or is supported by a fraudulent insurance act as described in this subsection is ineligible for payment of personal protection insurance benefits under the assigned claims plan.
  (5) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility may contract with other persons for all or a portion of the goods and services necessary for operating and maintaining the assigned claims plan.


History: Add. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3174 Notice of claim through assigned claims plan; assignment of claim; notice to claimant; commencement of action by claimant.

Sec. 3174.

  A person claiming through the assigned claims plan shall notify the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility of his or her claim within 1 year after the date of the accident. On an initial determination of a claimant's eligibility for benefits through the assigned claims plan, the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall promptly assign the claim in accordance with the plan and notify the claimant of the identity and address of the insurer to which the claim is assigned. An action by a claimant must be commenced as provided in section 3145.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3175 Rules for assignment of claims; duties of insurer to whom claims assigned; compromises and settlements; procedures; limitation on action to enforce rights; interest on delinquent payments; installment payments; default.

Sec. 3175.

  (1) The assignment of claims under the assigned claims plan must be made according to procedures established in the assigned claims plan that assure fair allocation of the burden of assigned claims among insurers doing business in this state on a basis reasonably related to the volume of automobile liability and personal protection insurance they write on motor vehicles or the number of self-insured motor vehicles. An insurer to whom claims have been assigned shall make prompt payment of loss in accordance with this act. An insurer is entitled to reimbursement by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for the payments, the established loss adjustment cost, and an amount determined by use of the average annual 90-day United States treasury bill yield rate, as reported by the Council of Economic Advisers as of December 31 of the year for which reimbursement is sought, as follows:
  (a) For the calendar year in which claims are paid by the insurer, the amount must be determined by applying the specified annual yield rate specified in this subsection to 1/2 of the total claims payments and loss adjustment costs.
  (b) For the period from the end of the calendar year in which claims are paid by the insurer to the date payments for the operation of the assigned claims plan are due, the amount must be determined by applying the annual yield rate specified in this subsection to the total claims payments and loss adjustment costs multiplied by a fraction, the denominator of which is 365 and the numerator of which is equal to the number of days that have elapsed between the end of the calendar year and the date payments for the operation of the assigned claims plan are due.
  (2) An insurer assigned a claim by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility under the assigned claims plan or a person authorized to act on behalf of the plan may bring an action for reimbursement and indemnification of the claim on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. The insurer to which the claim has been assigned shall preserve and enforce rights to indemnity or reimbursement against third parties and account to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for the rights and shall assign the rights to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility on reimbursement by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. This section does not preclude an insurer from entering into reasonable compromises and settlements with third parties against whom rights to indemnity or reimbursement exist. The insurer shall account to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for any compromises and settlements. The procedures established under the assigned claims plan of operation must establish reasonable standards for enforcing rights to indemnity or reimbursement against third parties, including a standard establishing an amount below which actions to preserve and enforce the rights need not be pursued.
  (3) An action to enforce rights to indemnity or reimbursement against a third party must not be commenced after the later of the following:
  (a) Two years after the assignment of the claim to the insurer.
  (b) One year after the date of the last payment to the claimant.
  (c) One year after the date the responsible third party is identified.
  (4) Payments for the operation of the assigned claims plan not paid by the due date bear interest at the rate of 20% per annum.
  (5) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility may enter into a written agreement with the debtor permitting the payment of the judgment or acknowledgment of debt in installments payable to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. A default in payment of installments under a judgment as agreed subjects the debtor to suspension or revocation of his or her motor vehicle license or registration in the same manner as for the failure by an uninsured motorist to pay a judgment by installments under section 3177, including responsibility for expenses as provided in section 3177(4).


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3176 Taking costs into account in making and regulating rates.

Sec. 3176.

   Reasonable costs incurred in the handling and disposition of assigned claims, including amounts paid pursuant to assessments under section 3171, shall be taken into account in making and regulating rates for automobile liability and personal protection insurance.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3177 Recovery by insurer of benefits and costs from owner or registrant of uninsured motor vehicle; written agreement to pay judgment in installments; notice.

Sec. 3177.

  (1) The insurer obligated to pay personal protection insurance benefits for accidental bodily injury to a person arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of an uninsured motor vehicle as a motor vehicle may recover all benefits paid, incurred loss adjustment costs and expenses, and incurred attorney fees from the owner or registrant of the uninsured motor vehicle or from his or her estate. Failure of the owner or registrant to make payment within 30 days after a judgment is entered in an action for recovery under this subsection is a ground for suspension or revocation of his or her motor vehicle registration and license as defined in section 25 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.25. For purposes of this section, an uninsured motor vehicle is a motor vehicle with respect to which security as required by sections 3101(1) and 3102 is not in effect at the time of the accident.
  (2) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility may make a written agreement with the owner or registrant of an uninsured vehicle or his or her estate permitting the payment of a judgment described in subsection (1) in installments payable to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. The motor vehicle registration and license of an owner or registrant who makes a written agreement under this subsection must not be suspended or revoked and, if already suspended or revoked under subsection (1), must be restored if the payment of any installments is not in default.
  (3) The secretary of state, on receipt of a certified abstract of court record of a judgment described in subsection (1) or notice from an insurer or the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility or its designee of an acknowledgment of a debt described in subsection (1), shall notify the owner or registrant of the provisions of subsection (1) at the owner or registrant's last address recorded with the secretary of state and inform the owner or registrant of the right to enter into a written agreement under this section with the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility or its designee for the payment of the judgment or debt in installments.
  (4) Expenses for the suspension, revocation, or reinstatement of a motor vehicle registration or license under this section are the responsibility of the owner or registrant or of his or her estate. An owner or registrant whose registration or license is suspended under this section shall pay any reinstatement fee as required under section 320e of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.320e.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3179 Act applicable October 1, 1973.

Sec. 3179.

   This act applies to motor vehicle accidents occurring on or after October 1, 1973.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan

Rendered 12/15/2019 10:09:49 Michigan Compiled Laws Complete Through PA 123 of 2019
© 2019 Legislative Council, State of Michigan Courtesy of www.legislature.mi.gov