LOCAL FINANCIAL STABILITY AND CHOICE ACT (EXCERPT)
Act 436 of 2012
As used in this act:
(a) "Chapter 9" means chapter 9 of title 11 of the United States Code, 11 USC 901 to 946.
(b) "Chief administrative officer" means any of the following:
(i) The manager of a village or, if a village does not employ a manager, the president of the village.
(ii) The city manager of a city or, if a city does not employ a city manager, the mayor of the city.
(iii) The manager of a township or the manager or superintendent of a charter township or, if the township does not employ a manager or superintendent, the supervisor of the township.
(iv) The elected county executive or appointed county manager of a county or, if the county has not adopted the provisions of either 1973 PA 139, MCL 45.551 to 45.573, or 1966 PA 293, MCL 45.501 to 45.521, the county's chairperson of the county board of commissioners.
(v) The chief operating officer of an authority or of a public utility owned by a city, village, township, or county.
(vi) The superintendent of a school district.
(c) "Creditor" means either of the following:
(i) An entity that has a noncontingent claim against a local government that arose at the time of or before the commencement of the neutral evaluation process and whose claim represents at least $5,000,000.00 or comprises more than 5% of the local government's debt or obligations, whichever is less.
(ii) An entity that would have a noncontingent claim against the local government upon the rejection of an executory contract or unexpired lease in a chapter 9 case and whose claim would represent at least $5,000,000.00 or would comprise more than 5% of the local government's debt or obligations, whichever is less.
(d) "Debtor" means a local government that is authorized to proceed under chapter 9 by this act and that meets the requirements of chapter 9.
(e) "Emergency manager" means an emergency manager appointed under section 9. An emergency manager includes an emergency financial manager appointed under former 1988 PA 101 or former 1990 PA 72 who was acting in that capacity on March 28, 2013.
(f) "Entity" means a partnership, nonprofit or business corporation, limited liability company, labor organization, or any other association, corporation, trust, or other legal entity.
(g) "Financial and operating plan" means a written financial and operating plan for a local government under section 11, including an educational plan for a school district.
(h) "Good faith" means participation by an interested party or a local government representative in the neutral evaluation process with the intent to negotiate a resolution of the issues that are the subject of the neutral evaluation process, including the timely provision of complete and accurate information to provide the relevant participants through the neutral evaluation process with sufficient information, in a confidential manner, to negotiate the readjustment of the local government's debt.
(i) "Interested party" means a trustee, a committee of creditors, an affected creditor, an indenture trustee, a pension fund, a bondholder, a union that under its collective bargaining agreements has standing to initiate contract negotiations with the local government, or a representative selected by an association of retired employees of the public entity who receive income or benefits from the public entity. A local government may invite holders of contingent claims to participate as interested parties in the neutral evaluation process if the local government determines that the contingency is likely to occur and the claim may represent at least $5,000,000.00 or comprise more than 5% of the local government's debt or obligations, whichever is less.
(j) "Local emergency financial assistance loan board" means the local emergency financial assistance loan board created under section 2 of the emergency municipal loan act, 1980 PA 243, MCL 141.932.
(k) "Local government" means a municipal government or a school district.
(l) "Local government representative" means the person or persons designated by the governing body of the local government with authority to make recommendations and to attend the neutral evaluation process on behalf of the governing body of the local government.
(m) "Local inspector" means a certified forensic accountant, certified public accountant, attorney, or similarly credentialed person whose responsibility it is to determine the existence of proper internal and management controls, fraud, criminal activity, or any other accounting or management deficiencies.
(n) "Municipal government" means a city, a village, a township, a charter township, a county, a department of county government if the county has an elected county executive under 1966 PA 293, MCL 45.501 to 45.521, an authority established by law, or a public utility owned by a city, village, township, or county.
(o) "Neutral evaluation process" means a form of alternative dispute resolution or mediation between a local government and interested parties as provided for in section 25.
(p) "Neutral evaluator" means an impartial, unbiased person or entity, commonly known as a mediator, who assists local governments and interested parties in reaching their own settlement of issues under this act, who is not aligned with any party, and who has no authoritative decision-making power.
(q) "Receivership" means the process under this act by which a financial emergency is addressed through the appointment of an emergency manager. Receivership does not include chapter 9 or any provision under federal bankruptcy law.
(r) "Review team" means a review team appointed under section 4.
(s) "School board" means the governing body of a school district.
(t) "School district" means a school district as that term is defined in section 6 of the revised school code, 1976 PA 451, MCL 380.6, or an intermediate school district as that term is defined in section 4 of the revised school code, 1976 PA 451, MCL 380.4.
(u) "State financial authority" means the following:
(i) For a municipal government, the state treasurer.
(ii) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (iii), for a school district, the superintendent of public instruction.
(iii) For a school district subject to a deficit elimination plan under section 1220 of the revised school code, 1976 PA 451, MCL 380.1220, the state treasurer.
(v) "Strong mayor" means a mayor who has been granted veto power for any purpose under the charter of that local government.
(w) "Strong mayor approval" means approval of a resolution under 1 of the following conditions:
(i) The strong mayor approves the resolution.
(ii) The resolution is approved by the governing body with sufficient votes to override a veto by the strong mayor.
(iii) The strong mayor vetoes the resolution and the governing body overrides the veto.
History: 2012, Act 436, Eff. Mar. 28, 2013
Am. 2015, Act 110, Imd. Eff. July 7, 2015
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 2 of Act 436 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 2. It is the intent of the legislature that this act function and be interpreted as a successor statute to former 1988 PA 101, former 1990 PA 72, and former 2011 PA 4, and that whenever possible a reference to former 1988 PA 101, former 1990 PA 72, or former 2011 PA 4, under other laws of this state or to a function or responsibility of an emergency financial manager or emergency manager under former 1988 PA 101, former 1990 PA 72, or former 2011 PA 4, under other laws of this state shall function and be interpreted to reference to this act, with the other laws of this state referencing former 1988 PA 101, former 1990 PA 72, or former 2011 PA 4, including, but not limited to, all of the following: (a) The charter township act, 1947 PA 359, MCL 42.1 to 42.34. (b) 1966 PA 293, MCL 45.501 to 45.521. (c) 1851 PA 156, MCL 46.1 to 46.32. (d) The general law village act, 1895 PA 3, MCL 61.1 to 74.25. (e) The home rule village act, 1909 PA 278, MCL 78.1 to 78.28. (f) The fourth class city act, 1895 PA 215, MCL 81.1 to 113.20. (g) The home rule city act, 1909 PA 279, MCL 117.1 to 117.38. (h) The metropolitan transportation authorities act of 1967, 1967 PA 204, MCL 124.401 to 124.426. (i) 1947 PA 336, MCL 423.201 to 423.217."
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